This kind of bleeding is very painful and may lead to joint deformity and arthritis. As the person with hemophilia experiences episodes, they are better to identify “a bleed” before there are any outward signs. For instance; As blood collects in the joint or muscle space, they may notice warmth, pain, and/or swelling to the area affected. For an infant or toddler the caretaker may notice some signs and symptoms suck as, swelling and warmth to an area of the body, blood in the urine or stool, unexplained irritability, or pain (“hemophilia”2002).
In both severe hemophilia A and severe hemophilia B, the most frequent symptom is spontaneous joint bleeding. Other serious sites of bleeding include the bowel, the brain and soft tissues. These types of bleeding can lead to throwing up blood or passing blood in the stool, stroke, and sudden severe pain in the joints or limbs. Painful bleeding into the soft tissues of the arms and legs can lead to nerve damage.
Aplastic Anemia is a potentially life threatening syndrome in which the affected person experiences pancytopenia which means there is a reduced production of red blood cells [RBCs], white blood cells [WBCs] as well as platelets. The affected person also will have hypoplastic bone marrow which means that fat replacement in the bone marrow space which is normally filled with hematopoietic precursor cells (Cabrera & Schiebel, 2015). The cells produced by the bone marrow are crucial for supplying oxygen and nourishment to tissues and organs, fighting off infection and clotting of
2. Which of the following terms refers to either a reduction in the quantity of hemoglobin or a reduction in the volume of red blood cells?
The anemia of acute blood loss could be described as which one of the following?
His hematocrit is 52% which is elevated from the normal 45% in men. The polycythemia occurs due to the presence of hypoxemia due to his COPD. The body will produce more red blood cells to attempt to increase the amount of O2 being delivered to the body tissue.
1. Anemia, pp. 989. Anemia is a areduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin. Anemias commonly result from (1) impaired erythrocyte production, (2) blood loss (acute or chronic), (3)increase erythrocyte destruction, or (4) a combination of these three. sThe fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia is a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia.
Bone Marrow Transplant is when a surgeon removes a bone marrow stem cells and starts to replace the faulty parts of the genetic code with a new healthy
Possible causes of polycythemia include Your answer: d. an increase in RBCs, resulting in a higher-than-normal hematocrit. Correct answer: b. living at high altitudes. 4. You would expect anemia to develop in a person You correctly answered: c. who has abnormally shaped hemoglobin in their RBCs.
Also known as normocytic anemia. This is the most frequent type of anemia most often happening to males over 85 years old. It is a common problem that occurs to men and women over 85 years old. Symptoms include and are caused by: a reduced production of normal-sized red blood cells even though presence of hemoglobin in the red blood cells is within the standard range; an increased production of HbS as is seen in sickle cell diseases; greater destruction and loss of red blood cells; an increase in plasma volume that is not compensated by anything else; a B2 (riboflavin) deficiency; and a B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency. (Brill & Baumgardner 2000).
Yearly, around six hundred to nine hundred people are diagnosed with Aplastic Anemia within the United States. Aplastic Anemia is a autoimmune hematological disorder that causes pancytopenia which is a reduction in major blood components, namely, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. This disease has been labelled as a type of bone marrow failure, that is often due to not one but a variety of disorders that occur simultaneously. Aplastic Anemia can therefore be defined as a bone marrow disorder that is often rare, non contagious, and can often be life threatening.
Auto immune hemolytic anemia is a disorder where the body attacks itself. The body attacks and lysis its own red blood cells. The immune system recognizes the red blood cells as foreign invaders, targets them and destroys them. Red blood cells are either destroyed in the vessel as it circulates or when its circulates through the liver or spleen. Hemoglobin is released by the red blood cells and the liver is overworked as it tries to break it down. Oxygen is delivered to cells and tissue via hemoglobin and can cause symptoms such as lethargy, tachypnea, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, and disorientation due to lack of oxygen. Vomiting and poor appetite can also be experienced symptoms. Auto immune hemolytic anemia is diagnosed with blood
Low blood counts are a key feature of myelodysplastic syndrome which is the reason for the many symptoms these patients experience. The three types of cytopenia that people with Myelodysplastic Syndrome experience are anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia which are all low blood cell counts of the three blood cells. Cytopenias can cause anemia, the inability to fight off infections, easy bruising, and spontaneous bleeding. This can be due to the lack of blood cells in the blood stream, but also from dysplasia of the blood cells from the disease. If the cell is deformed, it may not be able to provide the same function as a healthy cell, resulting in the same effect as having cytopenia. Myelodysplastic syndrome is a gradual process and is
R.S.’ causes of having polycythemia is a result of inadequate oxygen due to his smoking. Because there's less oxygen in the blood, the body tries to overcome the deficiency by making more red blood cells. Unfortunately, the body just keeps on producing until it is too many. Due to R.S.’ heavy smoking and coronary artery disease a proliferation in carbon monoxide in the blood that can lead to higher red blood cell and hemoglobin levels to
Polycythemia Vera is the most common form and the frequency of the condition is 1-2 individuals affected per over 100,000. The problem is often linked to a gene defect called JAK2V617F and the cause/mechanism of the defect is unknown. Another form of polycythemia, Chuvash, causes abnormalities in the VHL protein and prevents HIF-1α from binding and degrading under normal oxygen conditions. Thus, even under normoxic conditions, an individual would have elevated HIF, EPO, and red blood cell levels (i.e. erythrocytosis). Early stages of polycythemia do not show any signs, but as the disease progresses symptoms start to appear. Individuals may get frequent headaches, weakness, dizziness, and/or tinnitus. Other symptoms include excessive itching, enlarged spleen and/or liver, hypertension, thrombosis, hemorrhaging, and sometimes obstruction of hepatic