Esophageal Cancer : A Lethal Variation Of Cancer

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Esophageal cancer, or oesophageal cancer, is a lethal variation of cancer globally ranking sixth as the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths and eighth as the most common type of cancer (Pennathur et al. 2013). In contrast to other parts of the world, the United States has experienced a decrease in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates and a distinct increase in esophageal adenocarcinoma, which corresponds to increased obesity and gastroesophageal reflux rates over the years (Simard et al. 2012). Along with increasing incidence rates, esophageal cancer is associated with a 15-25% survival rate of five years regardless of treatment, poor prognosis due to diagnosis during the cancer’s later stages, and predisposition to metastases regardless of tumor type (Pennathur et al. 2013, Chen et al. 2013). In addition, patients who have been treated are at risk for high incidences of recurrence and approximately 90% of patients are faced with mortality from esophageal cancer (Lou et al. 2013), all of which contributes to the poor prognosis associated with the disease. With increasing incidence rates and poor prognosis, esophageal cancer poses challenges to healthcare providers in finding effective and standardized guidelines with respect to screening, treatment, and surveillance. Lifestyle, medical history, socioeconomic factors, and premalignant conditions influence the development of esophageal cancer. Three primary risk factors include consumption of tobacco,

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