Essay Civil Right Movement

2307 Words Dec 12th, 2011 10 Pages
Erasmus student

Montgomery bus boycott

Loughborough University May, 2011

In 1865, slavery was abolished throughout the United States, with the vote of the Thirteenth Amendment ("Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly recognized convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction") and the fourteenth (this ensures the right of suffrage to all citizens of the United States of America), and fifteenth amendments ("The right voting U.S. citizens will be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude") were voted in 1868 and
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The drivers are asking the police to arrest black people who refuse to leave their seats to whites. Such incidents and the general context of oppression of black women lead Montgomery to create an organization in the early 50's, WPC, Women's Political Council. They meet regularly with the mayor to solve problems with a few limited applications. But no improvement is recorded. On 1 December 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat. She was immediately arrested. The same evening, the WPC decided that the time has come for action. He distributed leaflets and called on all African Americans to boycott the buses for a day to protest against the arrest of Mrs. Parks. On 5 December, the buses run empty in black neighborhoods. By late afternoon, representatives of religious organizations, professional, academic and civilian black community come together and create a new movement led by the Baptist Church, the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association, organized by ED Nixon and other leaders). The members elect the young Martin Luther King Jr. president and, boosted by the success of the boycott, voted unanimously reconfirmed it until their demands are accepted. As the requests made 18 months earlier by the WPC, the stresses are relatively moderate. They demand the guarantee of courteous behavior toward African Americans that they can sit at any empty space and some are employed on the lines flowing in the largely black neighborhoods. To the extent that the boycott may

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