Essay On Achromotopsia

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Colour vision does not occur in all individuals. Achromotopsia is a genetic disorder in which individuals experience decreased vision, light sensitivity and lack colour vision. In 80% of cases, Achromatopsia results from recessive mutations in the genes CNGA3 and CNGB3, which both code part of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels (Michalakis et al., 2017). CNG channels are vital in producing and regulating action potentials in cone cells and the retina in response to photoreceptor activation, and a loss in function results in a loss in electrical signalling in response to light (Koch and Dell'Orco, 2015). This loss of photoreceptor activity and subsequent impairment of colour vision highlights the importance of photoreceptors in…show more content…
Trichromatic colour vision is considered to be a great evolutionary advantage, previously used for finding food in the forest. Many studies have been conducted on the importance of trichromatic colour vision in primates by measuring various properties of food being foraged in the wild. Recent research in particular has focused on the importance of genetics in relation to effective colour vision, to examine the evolutionary advantages of trichromatic colour vision (Surridge et al, 2003). Colour vision within primates is vital, as being able to recognise different colours allows primates to recognise ripe fruit, allowing successful foraging of food. Research has also been conducted on the idea that trichromatic colour vision was developed to differentiate between emotional states, socio-sexual signals and threat displays (Changizi et al, 2006), discovering that in relation to the hypothesis that trichromatic animals experience and are sensitive to two dimensions of skin modulations. Therefore, M and L-cone sensitivity is enhanced in primates, able to discriminate variations in blood oxygen saturation which affects skin
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