Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Approximately 0.5-1 percent of Americans will develop bipolar II disorder in their lifetime, worldwide the prevalence is 0.4 percent (Rosenberg & Kosslyn, 2011). Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability, because of its cognitive and functional impairment, the high rate of medical and psychiatric comorbidity, and the relevant suicide risk (Dell 'Osso, et al., 2016). Bipolar II disorder is one of the two most commonly diagnosed subtypes of Bipolar disorder, which are distinguished by the amount of burden the depression causes, the number, frequency, duration, and severity of the depressive episodes, and the occurrence of specific sub threshold episodes (Dell 'Osso, et al., 2016). Although bipolar II disorder diagnosis are on the rise we lack extensive research on the features and treatments of this disorder (Datto, Pottorf, Feeley, Laporte, & Liss, 2016). Bipolar II disorder is now recognized in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) under a new chapter dedicated specifically to bipolar disorders. Which proves that bipolar disorders are their own set of disorders in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics (Möller, et al., 2014). This allows an enhancement in the accuracy of diagnosis, which in turn leads to earlier treatment. In the DSM-5 it states that bipolar II disorder can lead to effects such as disability, comorbidity, mortality, and an impact on the quality of life (Datto, Pottorf,
Ever felt extremely happy one day and terribly depressed the next, as if you were on an emotional roller coaster? How about spontaneously spending $5,000 on a shopping spree that you have no use for? Imagine being so depressed that you want to commit suicide because dinner was not the meal you had in mind. Each of these actions may seem completely farfetched to the average person; however, actions similar to these are a reality for nearly 5.8 million adults in the United States that suffer from an illness called bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder, historically referred to as manic depressive illness, is an
“Bipolar disorder, also commonly known as manic depression, is defined as a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly alternate from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. All people with bipolar disorder have manic episodes abnormally elevated or irritable moods that last at least a week and impair functioning. But not all become depressed ” (American Psychological Association, 2015). Bipolar disorder can vary in each individual. The symptoms fluctuate in pattern, severity and rate of recurrence. Some people are more susceptible to either mania or depression, while others change proportionately between the two types of episodes. Some have frequent mood disruptions, while others live through a few throughout their lifetime.
Bipolar Disorder The aspect of bipolar disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. It was rumored that Vincent Van Gough suffered from bipolar disorder. There is a large group of people suffering from this disorder, however there are no causes or cures for it. Bipolar disorder impairs one’s ability to obtain and sustain social and occupational success. The journey for even a cause will continue for many years to come.
Bipolar disorder, also called a manic-depressive illness, is a common disorder which causes mood swings, lasting periods of depression, and episodes of mania. “Extreme changes in energy, activity, sleep, and behavior go along with these changes in mood” (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2008). A person becomes more goal-oriented and has grandeur visions of success. Patient M shows all these symptoms while talking to her friends and professors in college. She describes herself as a person who is above the two standard genders, what she calls a “third sex”, and who switched souls with a senior senator from her state. The latter belief inspires her to start a political campaign and achieve a high position in the government. She
Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009).
(2000) explained that the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder is between 2.6% and 6.5%, which can be compared to the prevalence of drug abuse which is 4.4%. Bipolar can be classified as a spectrum disorder because it forms an umbrella for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Unfortunately, bipolar spectrum disorders often go undiagnosed and therefore untreated. With that, Hirschfelt et all (2000), emphasizes the importance of recognizing this disorder. With recognition, these individuals can seek intervention for this disorder and decrease its symptoms and its progression. One way to diagnose this disorder is to screen for it by performing a mood disorder questionnaire. The researchers created a one-page, self-report, paper-and-pencil inventory that can be easily evaluated and administered. The questions were derived from the DSM-IV criteria at the time, but have been updated to the newest version’s clinical
Many have confused schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with dissociative identity disorder. Bipolar disorder also known as manic-depression is a fairly common disorder when compared to schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder. It is also well-understood and treated by a combination of medications and psychotherapy.It is characterized by alternating moods of mania and depression. These usually last weeks or even months depending on the person. People who are manic have a high energy level and often irrational beliefs. After a manic mood, the person will often “crash” into a depressive mood characterized by sadness and lethargy. It is found in both men and women equally and cause significant sleeping problems in both the manic mood and depressive mood. This disorder can pose a great challenge to treat due to the medications that are prescribed causing the patient to feel “zombie like”or “emotionless”. They tend to wean off of their medication and are able to cope well with their mood swings in society. Bipolar disorder can be diagnosed throughout the person 's life. Schizophrenia is less common than bipolar disorder but more common than dissociative identity disorder. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than women and is diagnosed mostly in the person’s late teens to early 20s. Schizophrenia is categorized by having both hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are defined by an experience involving the apparent perception perception of something
Bipolar Disorder is one of many depressive disorders which affect the way your brain functions. Depressive disorders are very common in fact, about 1 out of 7 people are diagnosed with a depressive disorder each year. So chances are that you know someone that has it whether it is a family member, friend, or coworker. Bipolar disorder goes by many different names, but they are all the same disorder. Some of these include: manic depressive-disorder, bipolar mood disorder, and bipolar affective disorder.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness affects about 1.2 percent of the U.S. population (8). It is defined by fluctuating states of depression and mania throughout ones life. Those who are depressed may be restless, irritable, have slowed thinking or speech, decreased sexual activity, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, suicidal thoughts as well as other changes. Those in a manic state may have increased activity or energy, more thoughts and faster thinking, grandiose thoughts, decreased sleep and need for sleep, increased sexual activity, elated mood, irritable mood, as well as other symptoms. Mixed state is when both depression and mania are exhibited at the same time in a cycle. Rapid cycling
Bipolar Disorder also known as Manic Depressive Illness involves outstanding mood swings. The individual has periods of depression, and periods when they feel either unusually good or pressured and irritable. It affects 1-2% of the population. Genetics plays a significant role. About 15% of children with one bipolar parent develop the disorder.
At least 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorder, more commonly known as manic-depression. This illness usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life. Although it may come into affect at any time, most individuals with the disorder experience their first mood episode in their 20’s. However, manic-depression quite often strike teenagers and has been diagnosed in children under 12.