Cancer, medically called ‘tumorigenesis’ (Thaker, Lutgendorf, & Sood, 2007, p.430) occurs when cells in the body orient themselves for malignant growth. Such cells show ‘self-sufficiency in growth signals’, are ‘insensitive to anti-growth signals’ and have ‘limitless replicative potential’ (Thaker, Lutgendorf, & Sood, 2007, p.430). Once a particular set of cells become malignant, the malignancy can spread to other set of cells in different organs due to ‘crosstalk’ between the affected cells and their surrounding ‘tissues’ and ‘micro-environments’(Thaker, Lutgendorf, & Sood, 2007, p.430).
Depending on the time of diagnosis and the particular stage at which the cancer is present in the body, treatment options range from a mastectomy, chemotherapy, or surgery (Haas, 2008). A mastectomy is the surgical removal of the breast, it is an approach often taken to halt the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy is an alternative to a treating the cancer. Chemotherapy for breast cancer is a systemic treatment, which affects most of the cells in your body. Most often chemotherapy is classified as the therapeutic use of chemicals to treat or control a particular disease. Potent drugs are used to kill or hinder the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells by interrupting their DNA, protein production, preventing cell division, starving them of their nutrients or blocking hormone receptors (Stephan, 2010).
According to the United States Breast Cancer Statistics (2016), in 2016 there will be an estimated 246,660 newly diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer and 61,000 of non-invasive breast cancer among women. For this reason, when studying breast cancer based on a large-scale impact, it not only affects the patient themselves but, as well as their families and communities nationwide. Furthermore, many contributing factors lead to this being such a public health issue. Conclusively, there are specific programs, services, and policies that help to assist the contributing factors of such a public health threat. Nevertheless, breast cancer is still an increasing concern in society, and much-needed research is required to be able to detect and treat this disease.
Breast Cancer is a type of cancer where in the breast cells growth are uncontrolled. To enhance our understanding of breast cancer, knowing how any cancer can develop is crucial. Cancer develops as a result of the alteration of the genes, or abnormal changes in the genes accountable for managing the growth of the cells and maintaining their health. In each nucleus, the genes operates as the “control room.” The cells in our bodies replace themselves through a process called cell growth in which the
Metastatic breast cancer, i.e., cancer that spreads to other parts of the body and eventually causes death. Sadly, these deaths are often overlooked amid all the hot pink fundraising and survivor-focused hoopla (Diane Mapes, 2016).
As the cells change, it begins to divide rapidly causing a tumor to form. The term “breast cancer” refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. Breast cancer can begin in different areas of the breast, or in some cases, the tissues in between. There are many different types of breast cancer, including non-invasive, invasive, recurrent, metastatic breast cancer, as well as the intrinsic or molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in around 20-30% of breast cancer tumors. It is associated with a more aggressive disease, higher recurrence rate, and increased mortality.
There are many different diseases that terrorize the human race every day. Of all of these sicknesses, one of the most devastating is breast cancer. Breast cancer touches all types of people all over the world each day. It is actually the second most common cancer amongst women in the United States. One in every eight women in the United States has some form of breast cancer and currently, the death rates are higher than any other cancer with the exception of lung cancer. Cancer is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online dictionary as “a malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis.” Therefore, breast cancer is a disease of
The normal cancer-fighting response from the immune system activates white blood cells, also called T cells, which target cancer cells in the area. The cancer-fighting cells also
There are various treatments used to combat breast cancer. Some are surgery, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Hormone Therapy, and Biological Therapy. Which those are not all of the treatments. Surgery is to remove the malignant tumor from the breast. Radiotherapy is a treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Hormone therapy is used to lower the levels of estrogen and progesterone and block the effects of these hormones. Biological therapy uses laboratory made antibodies
This paper will inform you of Breast Cancer. It is the most common form of cancer in women today but thanks to medical advances it is no longer the number one killer of women.
Stage four or “advanced stage” breast cancer “indicate the presence of distant metastasis to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones” (Halls 2015). The prognosis for stage four breast cancers is very low, often being 16-20%. These breast cancers may be recurrences follow-ing an individual’s initial treatment. "Bone scans, chest X-rays, CAT scans, MRIs, and blood tests may be used to check for metastasis”
This ability of malign cancer to make their way across basement membrane and into blood vessels is what makes cancer so fatal and impossible to be cure by surgery alone. The result of metastasis and invasion in normal tissue by cancer cells are often seen as one of the distinctive features of malignancy (Ruoslahti 1996). Even though the ability of invasion and metastasis are one of the hallmarks for cancer, these abilities are not unique to cancer cells as it can also occur during the early development stage of the embryo, in healthy organisms and in many noncancerous diseases (Mareel & Leroy 2003). It does not matter whenever the organism has developed benign or malign cancer, all cancer cells have the ability to disturb the normal cell cycle and threaten the survival of the organism.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, it accounts for one of every three diagnoses in the United States. Breast cancers are malignancies, life threatening tumors that develops in one or both breasts.
Cancer is an abnormal growing cells in which regulation of normal cell division is altered causing normal cells to acquire abnormal functions resulting from a series of molecular events that altered the normal properties of the cells(Schneider, 2001). The resultant aberrant cell behavior leads to the massive spread of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and invade other vital tissues(Alison, 2001). These uncontrolled, abnormal cells no longer