Essay On Cervical Carcinoma

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The major risk factor for pre invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma is infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV DNA is detected in virtually all cervical cancers, with HPV subtypes 16, 18, and 31 identified most commonly. Other known risk factors include early age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, and a positive smoking history. Cervical carcinoma spreads predominantly by local invasion and lymphatic metastasis. The most common metastatic sites include the vagina, parametrium, and pelvic lymph nodes ( 1,2,3).
The main histological types are:
• squamous cell carcinoma of cervix:accounts for the vast majority (80-90%) of cases and is associated with exposure to human papilloma virus (HPV)
• Adenocarcinoma of cervix
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The most common subtype is a well-differentiated carcinoma (grade 1 or 2 endometrioid histology) that behaves in an indolent fashion, causes bleeding symptoms in its early stages, and is curable in most cases. Risk factors for this low-risk subtype are well known and are related to an increase in circulating estrogens: obesity, chronic anovulation and nulliparity, estrogen replacement therapy (unopposed by progesterone), and tamoxifen use. PTEN gene mutation in 30 -80% of cases…show more content…
These cancers arise from the germinal epithelium lining the ovary. They can be further subdivided into several histologic cell types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional, and undifferentiated carcinomas. The risk of epithelial ovarian cancer increases with age and is found predominantly in postmenopausal women. Borderline ovarian carcinoma is a histologic variant that is less aggressive than their invasive epithelial counterparts, are found in younger women, and are often confined to the ovary at diagnosis
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