Essay On Diabetes

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There is a direct association between hyperglycemia and physiological and behavioral responses. During hyperglycemia, the brain recognizes it and sends a message through nerve impulses to pancreas and other organs to decrease its effect (Baynes, 2015). The autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, leads to a deficiency of insulin secretion which results in the metabolic derangements associated with T1DM. Normally, hyperglycemia leads to reduced glucagon secretion; however, in patients with T1DM, glucagon secretion is not suppressed by hyperglycemia (Holt, 2004). The resultant inappropriately elevated glucagon levels exacerbate the metabolic defects due to insulin deficiency. In type 2 diabetes these mechanisms break down, with the…show more content…
This type1 diabetes is a relatively homogeneous disease in which the insulin secretion of beta cells in the pancreas starts to decline and eventually ceases totally. 3.4.2. Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and/or abnormal insulin secretion (Alberti, 1998). About 90% of all diabetes cases account for type2 (Zimmet, 2001). The inability of the pancreas to produce insulin or production of insufficient insulin, or the insulin itself is inactive in the case of type2 diabetes (Naemiratch, 2007). In the case of type 2 diabetes, the blood sugar is controlled either through diet, with oral hypoglycemic drugs or in extreme cases with exogenous insulin (Inzicchi, 2002; Gannon, 2006). Individuals with type 2 diabetes mostly exhibit intra-abdominal (visceral) obesity. The presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia (high triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol levels; postprandial hyperlipidemia) are also observed in these individuals. Type2 diabetes is the most common form and is highly associated with a family history of diabetes, older age, obesity and lack of exercise. This type of diabetes is more common in women, especially women with a history of gestational diabetes, and in Blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans (Baynes, 2015). 3.4.3. Other specific type of diabetes: Diabetes may also result from other forms. Diabetes can be seen in individuals suffering or having suffered from certain

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