Essay On Diabetes

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The exact causes of the incidence rates of both types of diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) are not completely understood. The complex picture is possibly related to the combination of an individual’s genetic predisposition, gene-nutrient interactions, epigenetic programing, gut microbiome and the association of nutrients. Due to the compound genetic view of T2DM, the function of nutrients and dietary patterns in the etiopathogenesis of this disease will most likely be multifactorial at the molecular level (Berna et al., 2014). In an overview, the epidemic of T2DM has been attributed to urbanisation and environmental transitions such as work patterns shifts from heavy to sedentary activities, increased computerisation and mechanisation, and…show more content…
There is unmistakable evidence that T2DM can be prevented or even delayed by a well-structured diet and increased physical activity, generally resulting in weight loss (Pozzilli & Fallucca, 2014). Results from the US Diabetes Prevention Programme (2009), the look AHEAD - Action for Health in Diabetes (2007) and the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (2013), validate this synergistic effect. A systematic review and meta-analysis study performed on the association between dietary patterns and the risk of T2DM concluded that dietary patterns of healthy foods and/or nutrient choices (based on wholegrain products, fruit and vegetables) may decrease the risk of T2DM. Oppositely, dietary patterns characterised by unhealthy choices (based on red or processed meats, high-fat dairy, refined grains and sweets) may increase the risk of developing T2DM (Alhazmi, Stojanovski, McEvoy & Garg, 2013). Russel et al. (2016) through a systematic and comprehensive literature review concluded that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. The strongest association of a dietary component with reduced risk of developing T2DM is with insoluble and moderately fermentable cereal-based fibre (Schulze et al., 2007). A protective effect was also observed in diets rich in fruits and vegetables that are a good source of
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