agreement with other studies [11, 22, 23]. This result supports the hypothesis proposed by Sakaki et al. (2010) that upregulation of galectin-1 may be an early event in cancer development and carcinogenesis . Zuniga et al (2001) have found an association between resistance to treatment of RCC and high expression of galectin- 1 in these tumors. They have related that to the effect of galectin- 1 in the immune T cell response. Higher levels of galectin-1 have been shown to induce T-cell apoptosis, thereby providing a potential immune escape mechanism .
However, the opposite was observed in galectin-3 which was less represented in tumor tissue than adjacent tumor free areas suggesting a tumor suppression role in RCC. This is in…show more content… However, the small number of cases of chromophobe RCC included in our study necessitates supporting this finding by further studies on larger number of chrmophobe RCC cases.
Our study showed a statistically significant association between the expression of galectin-1 and the site of tumor that 51% of specimens which showed high expression of galectin-1 were located at the upper pole. This may be attributed to that the majority of our studied tumors were located at the upper renal pole.
Significant inverse association was found between the expression of galectin-3 and presence of tumor necrosis and haemorrahge. The high expression of Galectin-3 in normal renal tissue as well as its low expression in tumors with hemorrhage and necrosis suggest a tumor suppression role of Galectin-3 in RCC. This is in agreement with other Merseburger et al. . Low expression of Galectin-3 in tumors with prominent necrosis may be explained by the anti-necrotic role of galectin-3 proved by other studies. Also, this may explain what found in previous studies that tumors with high expression of galectin-3 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs [29, 30].
Our study didn't show significant association between the expression level of both galectin-1 and galectin-3 on one hand and the clinicopathological parameters on the other hand as patient age, gender, tumor grade, etc. These findings were in agreement with