Clostridium difficile is a gram positive, spore forming anaerobic bacillus, which may or may not carry the genes for toxin A-B production (Nipa, 2010). These two types of protein exotoxins produced by the Clostridium difficile bacillus, toxin A and toxin B, can have an infectious form and a non-active, non-infectious form (Grossman, 2010). The infectious form can survive for a short duration of time in the environment. The spores can survive for a longer period of time in the environment and are not infectious unless and until they are ingested or are transformed into an infectious state (Nipa, 2010).
Main purpose of cellulitis treatment process is reduction of severity cellulitis infection, fast recovery, pain relieve, cure affected skin and prevention of recurrence - definition of treatment for cellulitis. In most cases healing process contains treatment with antibiotics drugs. Antibiotics are used orally or intravenous depending of severity of affected skin area. Period for using oral antibiotics (by mouth) is 10 to 14 days. In this period is crucial to take every single pill that doctor has prescribed, even later when you begin feel better .Treatment for cellulitis with intravenously antibiotics (IV) is recommended when we have more serious infection,in most cases lasts 3 to 5 days.
Shingles, herpes zoster, is a very contagious and painful rash, or blister that appears on the skin. These rashes most commonly appear on the sides of the body in stripes. The stripes are made up of many very painful blisters caused by a certain type of virus. The varicella zoster, most commonly known as the chicken pox virus attacks the nerve roots in that area. The herpes zoster virus is in the herpes family, including HSV, herpes simple virus, which causes cold sores, fever blisters, and genital herpes. (WebMD, 2011) Most people are required to get the chicken pox shot when they are children although some do not. The chicken pox shot helps to keep out the virus by keeping it dormant in the nerves. The varicella zoster virus stays in a
difficile lies within the 19.6 kb pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) and codes for two major virulence factors and three accessory proteins . Genes tcdA and tcdB encode Toxin A and Toxin B, respectively, the two major virulence factors which are part of the clostridial glucosylating toxin family . Both catalyze the inactivation of Rho-GTPases, which are essential for the regulation of eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton . The inactivation of Rho-GTPases causes cell death via cytoskeletal disorganization . The accessory gene functions are as follows; tcdE as a putative holin protein; tcdD as a positive regulator and tcdC as a negative regulator, both of which are controlling Toxin A and B gene expression
The bacteria produce a toxin known as cytolethal distending toxin. This toxin is believed to be the cause of disease in humans, but it isn't fully understood. It is also suspected to be a causative agent in Guillain-Barre syndrome, a disease that causes neuron demyelination, but again its role is not specifically understood.
Furthermore, dangerous strains of E. coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, produces toxins such as Shiga toxins. These toxins have the capabilities to damage the lining of the small intestine, which can result in stomach cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and bloody stool. If a person can come into contact with a contaminated source, symptoms can appear about three to four days after exposure and can usually last between one to nine days. The infected host is considered contagious until their symptoms stop and even a couple days after that. The way E. coli O157:H7 is diagnosed is by a special stool culture that is sent to a stool laboratory, where tests are run to
The virulence factors of anthrax are encoded on two large pathogenicity-related plasmids. The virulence factors of anthrax are the capsule and endotoxin production (Fasanella, 2013). The capsule of the bacterium aids in attachment to the host and prevents phagocytosis by the host immune system. Once the anthrax spores are lodged into the skin or lungs, the bacteria rapidly begin growth, producing a deadly tripartite endotoxin which affects cell metabolism. This toxin is composed of three proteins which are the Protective Antigen (PA), the Edema Factor (EF) and the Lethal Factor
Dermatitis is a general term that describes an inflammation of the skin. There are different types of dermatitis, including seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (eczema). Although the disorder can have many causes and occur in many forms, it usually involves swollen, reddened and itchy skin. (www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/dermatitis-000048.htm)
“Psoriasis is a long-term (chronic) skin problem that causes skin cells to grow too quickly, resulting in thick, white silvery, or red patches of skin.” (WebMD, 2012) To uneducated individuals, they may look at a person with Psoriasis and think to stay away from them as it might be contagious. This disorder is not contagious, but it does affect a person with Psoriasis to go through social exclusion and discrimination. A mistaken trigger in the immune system is said to be the one of the causes of rapid production of skin cells in the body. Patients with Psoriasis produce new skin cells between 2-6 days. That is a little over four times less than the time they are normally produced, which is 21-28days. “Psoriasis affects approximately 3% of
A large vessel essentially refers to the aorta and its largest branches that are directed to the head and neck and the extremities. The hallmark in terms of pathology with large vessel vasculitides is that chronic inflammatory lesions are primarily found inside of the walls of vessels and not on the outside. This is a key distinction that can be used in order to separate large vessel from small vessel pathologies, which present with inflammation on the outside of the vessel wall in addition to being found within. The two main large artery vasculitides that will be discussed below are giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu disease.
Virulence Factors: The most important virulence factor of S. aureus is the specific surface proteins that allow the organism to attach to host proteins. The surface proteins of this bacterium allow it to attach to host proteins such as laminin and fibronectin, which form the extracellular matrix of epithelial and endothelial cells. S. aureus also produces a number of membrane damaging toxins that allow the organism to further invade and harm the host, of which the alpha- toxin is the most well studied and is the protein responsible for septic shock. The alpha- toxin is a protein that binds to a specific receptor in platelets and monocytes in humans, forming pores that eventually destroy the cell.