Essay On Indian War

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On 29th September 2016, the Indian army carried out surgical strikes against a number of positions along the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir in response to a militant attack in Uri eleven days earlier. The Indian military response is unprecedented, as India has historically responded to Pakistan’s support for militancy in the subcontinent through diplomatic channels. Even after the Mumbai attacks, which claimed the lives of 166 civilians, Indian officials published a 69 page dossier detailing the involvement of Pakistani state-agencies, and the government responded by pressurizing Pakistan on the international front, rather than attempting military action (Rabasa 2009, 12-14).

Despite making international headlines the details of what
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Wendt identifies three key elements of this international social structure, namely shared knowledge, material resources, and “practices”.

Wendt describes shared knowledge as shared expectation or knowledge which “...constitute the actors in a situation and the nature of their relationships...”(Wendt 1995, 73), while the term ‘practices’ characterizes the dynamic nature of social structures by referring to period of time where certain configurations of relationships between states are tended towards as determined by some underlying idea, conflict or other organizing principle, as with the Cold war. “Material” refers to the material resources, such as economic or military capabilities, population size, or other tangible resources available to an actor. Putting the three together “...constructivist theorizing tries to show how the social structure of a system makes actions possible by constituting actors with certain identities and interests, and material capabilities with certain meanings...”(Wendt 1995, 73) and emphasizes on how “...agency and interaction produce and reproduce structures of shared knowledge over time” (Wendt 1995, 76). Thus, given a social structure for a given system, where each actor corresponds to sets of identities and narratives that inform both the actor’s intentions and behaviours,

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