Essay On Mscs

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Applications of MSCs:
Findings of in vitro studies, animal models and clinical practices have suggested different applications for MSCs. There are a large number of clues about the efficiency of MSCs in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and immunotherapy. Currently, a significant number of clinical trials have been conducted on the application of MSCs in the treatment of various diseases, including orthopedic wounds (30), cardiovascular diseases (31), autoimmune diseases such as Crohns, type 1 diabetes (32) and GVHD following stem cell transplantation and liver diseases. Moreover MSCs are applied as cell therapy for the treatment of bone and cartilage disorders, contributing to wound healing (33) or they are applied in the
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MSCs are a promising tool for cell therapy. They partly contribute to the repair of injured tissues, but they cannot effectively play role in tissue repairing because of their scarce number (e.g. 1 per 106 cells in bone marrow or 1 per 104 cells in umbilical cord) (6). Therefore, in vitro cultivation and expansion and increasing their number for therapeutic purposes is necessary. However, their characteristics and phenotypes may be affected after cultivation and proliferation, depending on factors such as age and donor conditions, cell separation techniques, culture media and supplements (8). Because of self renewality and the ability to differentiate into different lineages they are an extremely appropriate treatment option (37) and are considered as an ideal source for tissue engineering (38).
2. MSCs also have immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory features because of producing immunosuppressive cytokines. Among varied MSCs sources, adipose tissue isolated MSCs have the highest immune suppression potential (39). They have a wide range of functions to suppress the innate and acquired immune responses which include, regulating cytokine production, suppressing cytotoxic T-cell activity, inhibiting differentiation of dendritic cells, elevating the number of regulatory T cell (40) and inhibiting the activity of B-cell, NK-cell and DC. They mainly function through induction of soluble factors such as TGF-b, HGF, NO and HLA-G. Although they can
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