Essay On Respiratory Infection

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Respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of death worldwide (Ferkol and Schraufnagel, 2014). Each year, more than three million children under 5 years of age die from pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections and in 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.5 million people (Wardlaw, 2006; WHO, 2016). The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant respiratory tract pathogens have aggravated the current situation by limiting the treatment options (Zumla et al., 2014). A recent report stated that in the USA in 2013, at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths were caused by antibiotic-resistance infections (CDC, 2013). The emergence of antibiotic-resistance is related to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics (Ventola, 2015).…show more content…
The hygroscopic nature of a drug is a risk for good aerosolization since moisture uptake can result in agglomeration (Hoppentocht et al., 2015). On the other hand, hydrophobic coating improves the flowability of cohesive powders (Hickey et al., 1990; Yang et al., 2005).
Kanamycin, an aminoglycoside, is currently administered by injection for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (WHO, 2010). High doses of injected kanamycin can cause serious side effects but respiratory delivery of kanamycin could potentially reduce these side effects and improve the therapeutic activity by providing high concentrations of drug in the infected lung (Pham et al., 2015). However, respiratory delivery of kanamycin alone is problematic because it shows poor aerosolization efficiency (Momin et al., 2017). To improve the aerosolization efficiency of kanamycin, a modification of the inhaler device design has been reported and formulation approaches have used drug excipient combinations (Hoppentocht et al., 2015; Momin et al., 2017). However, adding excipients creates its own problems since it results in the need to deliver a larger mass of powder to the lung. This is a particular issue for kanamycin since its dose is substantial, so a drug-only formulation
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