Bladder cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the urinary bladder. Most forms of bladder cancer start in the superficial layer of the transitional epithelium, and most often affect the transitional cells. It may also be called transitional cell carcinoma or even urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma is also a term used for transitional cell cancer in the renal pelvis, ureters, and urethra.
Bladder cancer is a cancer where cells in the bladder start to grow at a fast, uncontrollable rate. As more cells develop, a tumor can be made and spread to the rest of the body. The bladder stores urine until it is released from the body through the urethra. As the bladder is loaded with urine, sensory impulses go to the spinal cord and then to the brain to signal the need to urinate. (American Cancer Society, Inc.)
It must be emphasized that MVD evaluation under the microscope is somewhat subjective and inter-observer variation can be substantial (7) . So, we proceeded for the data analysis of the angiogenesis of the bladder lesions and correlating them with the type of cells, tumor stage, grade and incidence of recurrence.
Bladder cancer also has another distinguishing sign: hematuria. Hematuria means “blood in urine”; this blood can be visible by the naked eye, or found by a microscopic examination of the urine. Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in males, with approximately 72,570 new cases being diagnosed in the United States each year. The most prevalent risk factor for bladder cancer is tobacco smoking. (“Bladder Cancer”, 2013) E.P. denies history of smoking.
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is an organ in the lower part of the abdomen that stores urine until it is passed out of the body. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, which begins in urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells are transitional cells, which are capable of changing shape and stretch when the bladder is full. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma - cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the bladder- and adenocarcinoma - cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids- although these types of cancers are not very known they are likely
The function of bladder is to hold urine the bladder is a sort of pouch found in the end of the genito-urinarian tract. Its function is to retain the urine of the body until it can be released to the urethra and out of the body.
The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra. One of its main functions is that it produces a fluid that makes up part of the semen. As men age, the prostate may enlarge and expand, and in the enlarged state, it begins to block the flow of urine. This is a symptom of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and while not cancerous, surgery is required to correct urine flow. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United Sates after skin cancer, and it’s the 2nd leading cause of death from cancer in men. Almost all prostate cancer cases are classified as adenocarcinomas, meaning that
Bladder is one of the organ which is part of the urinary system of body. The major function of the bladder is to store urine produced in the kidney prior to urination. The urinary system of the body ensures the removal of wastes and excess fluid from the body in the form of urine. To ensure normal urination to ensue, all the parts in the urinary system have to work in the right order. The process of urine elimination begins in the kidney and ends in the urethra. Human body is composed of a pair of kidneys which is bean-shaped and located right under the rib cage each on one side of the spine (Keast et al., 2015) (where in this Kanai paper is this mentioned?). The kidneys work in pairs to filter approximately 200 liters of blood per day so that any excess salt, water and urea, a
Urine cytology: Examining a urine sample under a microscope may reveal cancer cells that could come from the bladder, ureters or kidneys ("Leukemia Home Page - National Cancer Institute").
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in American men after skin cancer. There are many risk factors that increase the disease such as age, being the far most important risk factor, along with race, family history and diet (ASCO, 2015). The prostate is a walnut shaped gland of the male reproductive system that functions to create part of the semen, which is fluid in which sperm swim in when ejaculation occurs. It is located inferior to the bladder, anterior to the rectum, surrounding the urethra. For this reason, when a prostate becomes abnormal, many signs and symptoms manifest themselves when a male urinates. When the prostate becomes enlarged by cancer or any other disease, it blocks the neck of the urethra causing a weak stream,
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infection. Nevertheless, it is difficult to accurately assess the incidence of UTIs, because they are not reportable diseases. This situation is further complicated by the fact that accurate diagnosis depends on both the presence of symptoms and a positive urine culture, although in most outpatient settings this diagnosis is made without the benefit of culture.