Essay

982 Words Mar 5th, 2011 4 Pages
Introduction
Iba’t iba ang sistemang pang-ekonomiya ng iba’t ibang bansa. Ang ilan sa mga ito ay ang Kapitalismo, Komunismo, Sosyalismo at Pasismo. Kapitalismo ang karaniwang umiiral sa mga bansang demokratiko, gaya ng Estados Unidos, Hapon, at sa ating bansa, ang PIlipinas. Sa mga komunistang bansa naman gaya ng China at Cuba, umiiral ang Sosyalismo at Komunismo. Kapitalismo at Komunismo, ang dalawang sistemang pangkabuhayan na sadyang magkasalungat. Ano ba ang pagkakaiba at pagkakapareho ng dalawang sistemang pangkabuhayan na ito? Ano ba ang mga kapakinabangan ng mga ito? Ano rin naman ang hindi magagandang epekto?
Ang sistemang pang-ekonomiya na kapitalismo ay nalinang sa paglaganap ng Rebolusyong Industriyal sa Inglatera. Sa sistemang
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These individuals would naturally, without specific state intervention, "direct ... that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value." This would enable the whole economy to become more productive, and it would therefore be wealthier. Smith argued that protecting particular producers would lead to inefficient production, and that a national hoarding of specie (i.e. cash in the form of coinage) would only increase prices, in an argument similar to that advanced by David Hume. His systematic treatment of how the exchange of goods, or a market, would create incentives to act in the general interest, became the basis of what was then called political economy and later economics. It was also the basis for a theory of law and government which would gradually supersede the mercantilist regime that was then prevalent.
Smith asserts that when individuals make a trade they value what they are purchasing more than they value what they are giving in exchange for a commodity. If this were not the case, then they would not make the trade but retain ownership of the more valuable commodity. This notion underlies the concept of mutually-beneficial trade where it is held that both sides tend to benefit by an exchange.
Although he is often

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