The main method to manufacture ethyl ethanoate is the esterification of ethanol with acetic acid. A mixture of acetic acid and ethanol with a small amount of sulphuric acid is preheated and put into an esterfying column in which it refluxed. When the mixture is removed it goes to a second reflux column where 85% of acetate is removed. Then the water is mixed with the distillate \and then separated into two layers. One of the top layer is fed into the refluxing column from where the residue which contains 95% of ethyl acetate is distilled to remove any
Engineering involves a wide array of problems that must be overcome. A great deal of time is spent researching materials and their properties. Materials compromise all aspects of our society, from buildings to roads to even the equipment that was used in this lab. Problems arise in regards to how strong or flexible the material is, with the official terms being stress, strain, and elasticity. Improper use of such materials results in tragedies such as the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington that failed to due resonance and stress beyond its elastic limit .
The chemical formula of ethanol is made up of 2 carbons, 6 hydrogens and 1 oxygen and is classed as an alcohol (Material safety data sheet, 2001). Ethanol has a boiling point of 78.5c, density of .789 and a molecular weight of 46.0684mol (Biofuels Association of Australia, 2015). Ethanol is now usually used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form as a replacement for gasoline, where it is blended with gasoline to improve vehicle emissions and power (Biofuels Association of Australia, 2015).
It is shaped in a way to transfer weight to the towers and anchors with its tension (O'Connor, 1971, p. 372). Cables are made of high strength wires spirally bound to form a rope (O'Connor, 1971, p. 372). Vertical cable suspenders that are fastened to the main cables hang the actual roadway. Stiffening girders and trusses are along the side of the bridge to distribute concentrated loads and help to keep the motion of the bridge at a minimum (Troitsky, 1994, p115).
Both are pure hydrocarbons and are non-polar (symmetry causes dipoles to cancel). Both have london dispersion force. Propane has 26 electrons, gasoline has 66. Since gasoline has more electrons, it has a higher london dispersion force and so has a higher boiling temperature than propane.
Benzophenone was soluble in methyl alcohol whiles biphenyl was partially soluble. Benzophenone and biphenyl are both nonpolar molecules. Methanol is intermediately polar, allowing both nonpolar molecules to be dissolved as it is not too polar or nonpolar. However, biphenyl is less polar than benzophenone. Since methyl alcohol is somewhat polar, the more polar benzophenone is more soluble in methyl alcohol than biphenyl. Also, benzophenone can make hydrogen bonds. Thus, benzophenone is more soluble in methyl alcohol than
Methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol are alcohols that contain both London-dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen
Many other instances of increased technology is shown in NASA 's Marshall Space Flight Center, and more importantly, the ideas of Brad Edwards. Edwards expressed his idea of a 3-foot wide, paper-thin carbon-nanotube ribbon. This black ribbon would potentially launch upward 62,000 miles and into space. Essentially, acting as a space elevator. Although the fear of being launched at such a distances is alarming for most, Edwards ensures the safety of the device. The "space elevator" has the ability to ascend upward attached to the sturdy cable and hoist passengers to the height that they please. This would not only allow for spectacular, low height space tourism, but also the ability for to fling the spacecraft at a high elevation to the moon, stars, or beyond. (Lemley, 2016) "It 's the most detailed proposal I have seen so far. I was delighted with the simplicity of
__A__ 1. The weight of an object is a. a measure of the gravitational force pulling the object toward the earth. b. equal to the mass of the matter in the object. c. a measure of the space occupied by the object. d. the same at any location on the earth.
Table 1 summarises the results from the primary data collected. Figure 5 indicates there is a linear relationship between the molecular weight and heats of combustion. Figure 6 compares the heats of combustion of the primary data, the accepted values and values calculated from the bond dissociation energy. Figure 6 compares the heat of combustion values identified by the bond dissociation energy calculations, the accepted values and experimental values when 80g of water is heated by 10°C. The bond dissociation energies do not take into account the hydrogen bonding and the accurate energy required to change the tested alkanol from an aqueous state to a gaseous state. The experiments done to identify the accepted values were conducted
The boiling point of a compound is often related to its polarity (see also polarity chapter). The lower the boiling point is, the higher the vapor pressure of the compound and the shorter retention time usually is because the compound will spent more time in the gas phase. That is one of the main reasons why low boiling solvents (i.e., diethyl ether, dichloromethane) are used as solvents to dissolve the sample. The temperature of the column does not have to be above the boiling point because every compound has a non-zero vapor pressure at any given temperature, even solids. That is the reason why we can smell compounds like camphor (0.065 mmHg/25 oC), isoborneol (0.0035 mmHg/25 oC), naphthalene (0.084 mmHg/25 oC), etc. However, their vapor pressures are low compared to liquids (i.e., water (24 mmHg/25 oC), ethyl acetate (95 mmHg/25 oC), diethyl ether (520 mmHg/25 oC)).
When we eat meat we just eat it without considering the harm it could cause. One of which is the products of meat metabolism within the cells such as the homocysteine in the methionine (homocysteine) cycle. The elevation of this substance in the body could cause cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Furthermore, Homocysteine is a non-protein amino acid which is a product of methionine metabolism (1). It can't be obtained from a diet, but it synthesized from methionine, which is a product of meat metabolism (1). Also, homocysteine depends on the presence of vitamin B6, B12, and folate to convert back into methionine or into cysteine (2). The critical problem is in the absence of one of these vitamins, so homocysteine won't be able to convert into either
Although the Space Elevator will not make trips to space faster, it will make trips to space more frequent and it will open up space to a new era of development. Perhaps the biggest factor propelling the idea of a space elevator is that it would significantly lower the cost of putting cargo into space. Although slower than the chemically propelled space shuttle, the lifters reduce launch costs from $10,000 to $20,000 per pound, to approximately $400 per pound. This dramatic drop of expense required to traverse space would finally allow private investors to invest in a new area, known as “space production”. For example, titanium produced in earth’s environment has a maximum tensile strength of 200,000 psi but in the zero gravity of space “in theory” the tensile strength of titanium can be increased to over 500,000 psi. In addition, titanium will be much easier to manipulate in space thereby giving rise to new applications—with double strength.