A researcher has designed a study to test the effects of different types of individual psycho-therapy on people's levels of anxiety. She has randomly placed people into one of three groups: a behavioral treatment group, a psycho-dynamic treatment group, or a no-treatment control group. She then measures people's level of anxiety after the treatment.
Francis Bacon helped to pioneer the new science steering people away from Aristotelian teachings. He helped to bring the scientific method to a place of learning from observation and experimentation. He felt that science should be judged by the usefulness of the results (Greenwood, 2009). Bacon projected that many great things might come out of this empirical approach, but what has ensued in the centuries that followed, Bacon and others might not have predicted.
In today’s psychology profession, a therapist and even the client can cross many boundaries if immediate boundaries are not put into place during the initial visit. Some boundaries that are crossed are not a problem at first and then the problem progresses. Leonard L. Glass called these, “the gray areas of boundary crossing and violation” (429). However, there is further description, “Boundary issues mostly refer to the therapist's self-disclosure, touch, an exchange of gifts, bartering and fees, length and location of sessions and contact outside the office” (Guthiel & Gabbard). This statement by Thomas G. Gutheil, M.D. & Glen O. Gabbard, M.D explains the meaning of boundary
The field of psychology is truly fascinating, as the discovery of new and remarkable ideas arise with every question a researcher chooses to explore. Where questions can develop into a research study, which can either solidify, contribute, support, inspire, or provide answers in the field of psychology. In a sense, research is a trial and error approach as researchers are not always cognizant of the results that a study will provide. However, with sufficient knowledge the researcher can conduct a study, with less error, should the researcher be aware of a few simple ingredients.
The American Psychological Association is the leading scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States of America. The mission of the organization is to advance the creation, communication, and application of psychology in order to benefit society. According to the Ethics Code of Conduct (2010), psychologists must not base their assessments on opinions contained in their recommendations, reports and diagnostic or evaluative statements. This information informs us that bias information should not be used in assessment. Bias information includes psychological tests that marginalize individuals or groups.
Of the five general ethical principles of psychology, I believe the principle of beneficence and nonmaleficence are the most vital to maintaining ethical practices. Yet when it comes to psychology taking a role in “enhanced interrogation” in such settings as Abu Graib and Guantanamo Bay, it would seem that beneficence and nonmaleficence are conveniently forgotten. The first principle of the APA code of ethics states “in their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally” (American Psychology Association, 2003, principle A). Additionally, the APA posted their position on ethics and interrogations on their website, starting that their position is "clear and unequivocal" and that "any direct or indirect participation in any act of torture or other forms of cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment or punishment by psychologists is strictly prohibited. There are no exceptions” (APA, 2015). “Enhanced interrogation” is by definition just a
In psychology field especially in the mental health profession, strongly discourage therapist from engaging in any form of romantic relationships with former or current client. It is paramount because of the two most important encountered areas for these types of issues are termination and sexual relationships.
It is essential to understand the true meaning of ‘ethics’. Ethics originates from the Greek word ethos, which means character and refers to morals, traditions and norms (Cranston, Ehrich, & Kimber, 2014). It is a principle or code which governs what and how we do things (Mutch, 2005). Potter Stewart stated that “Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do” (Search Quotes, n.d.). Researchers are in a position of power where they collect information from their participants, therefore become ‘part of their life’. This means that the participants must be able to trust the researcher. Munch states that researchers treating their participants with respect and fairness will automatically act ethically (2005).
A question that comes up often about research or plans are the ethics of obtaining such research or plans. Though what is meant when people discuss the ethics of research. Ethics is a series of principles that help guide more human moral behavior. So in short when ethics is discussed about research it is talking about the moral and human decision making when doing research. Though how do we question if something is ethical or not? This question is answered by the six principles of ethics, Respect for Autonomy, Nonmaleficence, Beneficence, Justice, Fidelity and Veracity. Following these six principles gives a more concrete definition on what being ethical means.
It is generally believed that ethical policies are highly necessary in every organisation or association. Research environment is one of the areas, which highly require some moral regulation and policy especially in some developing countries. In this paper, the terms Research ethical regulations are used to describe “group of principles and policies that aim to regulate each step of research” (Oates, et al., 2010). The safety of all volunteers is one of the major concern in research ethics (Rawnsley, 2014). This policy does not only aim to ensure that there is no physical harm to any participant, but also intend to prevent the occurrence of any psychological effects for volunteers (Rawnsley, 2014). Furthermore, the availability of such policy emboldens and keep the best ethical research practice (Oates, et al., 2010). In addition to the previous point, this policy
Treating data ethically involves upholding integrity in following research protocol and maintaining honesty in reporting the findings. Integrity and honesty that the researcher exhibits are of critical significance in treating data ethically. In addition to restricting those having access to the data, the researcher is ethically obliged to describe and present the data as faithfully and authentically as possible even in the circumstances where it contradicts the researchers expectations. The imperative of reporting the findings as accurately constitutes an ethical obligation that the researcher is required to
There are some ethical issues in research that are related to researcher and the participants of research which are briefly described here:
Ethics has become a cornerstone when doing effective and meaningful research. Hence, the ethical behaviour of researchers is under unprecedented scrutiny (Best & Kahn, 2006).
In addition, it is essential that the researcher is aware not only of the international guidelines that may govern the ethical practices but also the local, cultural restrictions that may be of a sensitive nature but highly relevant in keeping the research ethical yet maintaining the integrity of its
Ethics, deriving from the Greek ethos meaning character (Jennings, 2010), are the “moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity” (Oxford Dictionary, 2015b) and establish the foundation of present-day research (Cropley, 2008; Flick, 2006). They are the “norms of conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour” (Resnik, 2011) and establish the values essential for the collaborative work between the researcher and the research subject (Jennings, 2010; Veal, 2006). The research at hand is therefore in accordance with the ethical principles as specified by Jennings (2010) and Veal (2006). This includes the free choice of participation in the research, the confidential usage of sensitive data received from respondents and the avoidance of harm to participants (Jennings, 2010). Besides, before the completion of the questionnaire all potential participants were informed about the purpose of the research and how the data will be used. All research subjects participated in the questionnaire survey on a voluntary basis and gave their consent for the usage of their data provided.