Ethical Ethics And Normative Ethics

1078 WordsMar 9, 20175 Pages
What is a right or obligation? What is good or bad? These two questions are examples of why mete-ethics and normative ethics exist. To be able to create an environmental ethic, one must have a sense of moral conclusion. Whether these morals are categorized through self-interest or obligation, meta ethics and normative ethics try to decipher these notions. To derive a normative ethic, meta-ethics needs to explain the language of morality, and how do humans come to a consensus of specific actions and thoughts. Ethics, by short definition, is how we (humans) relate to other beings (humans, animals, environment, etc.). Language such as, “right”, “wrong”, “good”, “bad”, and “obligation” are defined in different ways by different people,…show more content…
I believe that individuals are granted the perception of free will under a higher authority, but there are overarching human rights that should be abided by. Normative ethics can be separated into two categories, utilitarianism and deontology. Utilitarianism can be defined by Jeremy Bentham in the book The Elements of Moral Philosophy as “morality, he urged, is not a matter of pleasing God, nor is it a matter of faithfulness to abstract rules. Morality is nothing more than the attempt to bring about as much happiness as possible in this world” (Rachels, 80). Bentham suggested that there is only one fundamental moral principle, the “Principle of Utility (Rachels, 80). Bentham describes the “Principle of Utility” as “whenever we have a choice between alternative actions or social policies, we must choose the one that has the best overall consequences for everyone concerned” (Rachels, 80). Utilitarianism is a scientific way of making decisions and objectively making decisions. Utilitarianism is views moral judgements based on a measurement of pleasure and pain. This can be interpreted as the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Utilitarianism can be broken down into two sub categories, act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism considers only the consequences or outcomes of an action. Rule utilitarianism considers the consequences or outcomes that follow a rule of conduct. Deontology does not solely focus on the consequences of an act,
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