3.2.2 Quantitative VS Qualitative According to Yin (2003), there are two types of research approach. This includes quantitative research approach and qualitative research approach. A quantitative research emphasizes on transforming the data to numbers, quantities and statistics to formulate facts and to uncover patterns in a research. It addresses research purposes through empirical analysis that involve numerical measurement, the relationship between variables and analysis approaches (Zikmund et al., 2010). The sample size being investigated is typically large (Anderson, 2006). Quantitative research mainly uses questionnaires, surveys and other equipment to collect numerical or measurable data (Anderson, 2006). On the other hand, a qualitative research typically emphasizes words more than numbers
Ethics Ethics are norms of conduct. In terms of research, ethics are a set of rules that tell researchers what they should and shouldn't do. They exist because researchers might not be objective on whether a study might harm participants, among other things (McBride, 2010).
Ethics is described as the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. (Merriam Webster, 2017) Therefore, it is easy to say ethics equals morals; however, every human follows their own moral code. We have seen many research studies begin with good intent but ultimately fail due to their unethical decisions. As mentioned in the Willowbrook Study, parents were not given informed consent resulting in an outcry after witnessing the damage the hepatitis virus did to their children. It is also important to add that a willing participant is considered morally acceptable opposed to a coerced or uninformed one.
Andrew Wakefield - Unethical Research Vanessa Terrazas RES351 December 7, 2011 Paul Worthey Andrew Wakefield - Unethical Research Ethics are custom to every day living. Recognizing ethics in his or her research is vital. “The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, Chapter 2, Ethics in Business Research). Andrew Wakefield, a British doctor, was accused of acting unethically during his 1998 research report, the Lancet. The General Medical Council (GMC) ruled that Wakefield was dishonest and irresponsible during his research and he had a complete disregard for the children in his study. His behavior caused fear in
Role of a Researcher Bell (2005) mentioned that ethical research involves acquiring informed consent of people to be interviewed, questioned, observed or taken materials from and reaching to an understanding of how the data will be used and analysis will be reported and published. In guiding the activities of researchers, Denscombe (2010) described three ethical; “protection of participants’ interest”, “avoiding deception or misinterpretation” and “informed consent of participants”.
In the context of research, ethics is defined as the systems of moral principles that guide human action (1). Ethics is the reflection of the societies ideals of what is right and wrong. It is required in order for research to be valid and published for an ethics committee to evaluate the proposed research question, design and implementations and provide approval in order for a research project to be considered ethical.
The concept of ethics in scientific research has continuously evolved over several hundred years; records of the first experiments on humans, documented in the bible, date back to 550 BC.1 Throughout history, notorious cases of scientific misconduct have established guidelines and set the precedence for the governing standards of ethical conduct today.
Ethics are moral principles of doing what is right. It should be a foremost concern when carrying out research and experiments. There are past examples of where failure to adhere to ethical research has led to inhumane cases such as the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.
Ethics are a big part of research, in order for research to be conducted and the findings be used then they must follow ethics set by the Ethics committee. Ethics are a set of rules and rights. The rules must be followed by the researchers and the rights are for the participants. All participants must fully consent to the research and if they are too young then a guardian must consent for them. The participants’ information must be kept confidential and they can opt out of any parts of the research that they are uncomfortable completing.
Qualitative research uses data obtained through methods such face- to- face interviews, observations, and focus groups. Data is analyzed by looking for trends and patterns. Quantitative research use numerical and statics to process the answer specific questions. Statistics used to support assessment of research. Analysis techniques are used to report are affected by the questions addressed and type of information that is expected in the research discoveries (Wakoff, 2007).
Ethics are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong. They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Why are ethical considerations so important in research? First, ethical standards prevent against the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research. Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among researchers. This is especially important when considering issues related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, and many other issues. Researchers must also adhere to ethical standards in order for the public to support and believe in the research. The public wants to be assured that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety, health standards and so on. The handling of these ethical issues greatly impact the integrity of the research project and can affect whether or not the project receives funding. Because ethical considerations are so important in research, many professional associations and agencies have adopted codes and policies that outline ethical behavior and guide researchers. These codes address issues such as honesty, objectivity,
Ethics in the modern world is met with ambiguity and a vague sense of understanding. One group may define as ³what my feelings tell me is right wrong´ while others may describe ethics as the ³standards of behavior our society accepts´ (Velasquezet al, 1987). These answers may be typical of many people in the world today. Ethics are not ubiquitous because they stem from the realm of moral grounds and morals are not globally accepted nor understood. Ethical standards are more prevalent in the United States than in other countries, due in part to government as well as non-government agencies that have been established to monitor and advise on issue related to ethics in business, education, etc.
Ethics within Data Collection Ethics comes into play when data is collected. Specifics pertain to all individuals included when data is being collected. Studies should not be conducted for a self-serving reason; they should be conducted in a way that keeps individual or group information confidential and the individual who is conducting the research should remain open minded and accept the results whatever they are. Also, subjects should not be forced to participate. All these things must be taken into account for
3.9 Ethics Ethics deals with the responsibility the researcher has for their participants and the effects that the research can have on them.
Prompt #1 - What does Creswell say about the ethics of data collection? Compare and contrast that with the ethics of data collection one might encounter in the fields of intelligence, counter-terrorism, and protection.