Ethics Essay

772 Words4 Pages
TEST 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What is an “argument” in philosophy?

A set of claims one of which, called the conclusion, is said to be supported by the other claims, called the premises.
1. Premise
2. Premise
3. Conclusion

2. What do the terms “valid” and “sound” mean?

Valid Argument
If the premises are true, then it follows necessarily that the conclusion is true, or it is logically impossible for the conclusion to be false.
Sound Argument
A valid argument that contains only true premises. Soundness = Truth + Validity.

3. Sketch the “benefits arguments” in favor of harvesting Baby’s Theresa’s organs.

Set out the premises and conclusion for "Benefits Argument" in the Baby Theresa case.
The Benefits Argument
1. If
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If one bad thing happens then others will follow after.
1. If we permit any sort of mercy killing, we will have stepped onto a dangerous "slippery slope" down which we will inevitably slide.
2. The mercy killing of Tracy was permissible.
3. Hence, we have stepped onto a dangerous slippery slope (which will lead to the view that all life is cheap).
Objection: Are the causal claims supported by any evidence? In general, it is easy to make dire predictions concerning the future. Consider an analogy: Would gay marriage lead to the disintegration of the family?

6. What does Rachels’s “minimum conception of morality” consist of?
Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason-while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual affected by one’s decision. Reason and impartiality consist stuff
7. What are five common features of Cultural Relativism?
1.Different societies have different moral codes.
2. (a) The "good" is determined by society; (b) an act is "right" if it is allowed by the guiding ideals od the society in which it is performed, and "wrong" if it forbidden by those ideals.
3. There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one society's code as better than an other's.
4. The moral code of our society has no special status.
5. We should adopt an attitude to tolerance.

8. What is the “Cultural Differences” argument for Cultural Relativism? Does Rachels think it is sound? he thinks it is

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