Developmental psychology is a scientific approach that focuses on the ways in which individuals change and evolve across their lifespan, beginning with birth and ending in death. This specific study of the mind and behavior tends to concentrate on the time period from birth to adolescence because this is when the majority of development occurs. This branch of psychology revolves around various types of changes, including behavioral, cultural, social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors, all of which greatly impact the way a child will develop into an adult. Autism spectrum disorder is considered to be the most severe developmental disorder due to its ubiquitous and difficult nature. (“APA.org | Autism,” 2016) This disorder involves a delay or deficiency in those developmental areas, especially in regards to physical, emotional, and social weaknesses. ASD affects approximately 1 in 68 children according to the CDC, and this disorder is becoming more prevalent as time goes on, despite the immense amount of research being done in this area. While it seems to affect more and more children each year, ASD has shown to be 4.5 times more common in boys than in girls, which is another concern regarding the varied development between boys and girls. (“CDC | Data and Statistics” 2016) I find this disorder to be extremely interesting because of how little is actually known about it, as well as how much the symptoms can
Autism spectrum disorders are a class of developmental disorders that impair social skills, behavior, and communication (Center for Disease Control). ASDs are considered ‘spectrum’ disorders because each patient has a unique experience in the nature and severity of their symptoms (Center for Disease Control). Under the umbrella of ASDs, there are three types of disorders, including Autistic disorder, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Center for Disease Control). Autistic disorder is the most severe of the three, and patients exhibit significant problems with language, communication, and behavior (Center for Disease Control). Furthermore, people with Autistic disorder often have some intellectual impairment (Center for Disease Control). Asperger Syndrome is a milder form of autistic disorder where patients have some developmental delays, but their language and intellect are not affected (Center for Disease Control). The mildest of the ASDs is the pervasive developmental disorder. These patients usually don’t meet all of the criteria for autistic disorder, but do show some signs of social and communication problems (Center for Disease Control). The number of children diagnosed with ASD is growing, and currently 1 in 88 children fall somewhere on the spectrum (Mari-Bauset et al., 2013). Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism, and while the exact cause of these disorders is unknown, both genetic and
Autism is a syndrome that is characterized by the impairment of social interaction skills, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a decreased interest in participating in a variety of activities. In 1943, Kanner, the man who is attributed with the identification of this disease, hypothesized that autism might be a biological disorder as opposed to a psychological one. Numerous studies have been conducted supporting Kanner’s hypothesis. These studies have ranged from examining the effects of rubella to investigating certain purine metabolic disorders as possible etiological agents. Recently, the areas of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and genetics have played a crucial role in developing a clearer picture into
Autism is defined as the brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. Autism affects three areas of human development: (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) social interaction, and (3) creative or imaginative play. Autism is considered a severe disorder and developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear and sense. The cause of autism remains unknown. Current theories indicate a problem with the function or structure of the central nervous system. This essay overviews the history of autism and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It provides an idea of the population and causes of autism. It takes about the program services and the current operational issues related to autism.
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex disorder of brain development characterized by early onset difficulties in social communication, behavior, and sensory processing (Webb, 2009). Although, based on the child, symptoms can vary widely within each of these areas. Characteristics of autism often begin to surface between the ages of 8-10 months old, and continue to become more apparent as the child ages. Symptoms of ASD in infants include, failure to respond to their names, delayed babbling, and lack of social interaction. Other red flag characteristics include failure to meet normal milestones, and low muscle tone. As the child grows, characteristics of autism spectrum disorder may become more prominent, and include symptoms such as lack of eye contact, sensory difficulties or self-stimulatory behavior (Webb, 2009). Based on the severity of the diagnoses, children with autism could have other medical conditions including intellectual disabilities, seizures, anxiety disorders, and issues pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract. Autism is referred to as a spectrum, because not all people will experience, or exhibit the symptoms in the same way.
Autism has been on the rise in the past 20 years, and is getting dangerously close to reaching epidemic proportions (Zelan, 1). Statistically, Autism rates have been rising in the United States with Autism now effecting 1 in every 150 children ages 10 and younger (Zelan, 1). Autism can occur in any race and does not gender discriminate, though boys are four times more likely to have Autism than girls (Castrogiovanni). The causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Autism are the main aspects that most interest researchers today. If studies continue to have good results, the quality of life for Autistics could improve exponentially. Autism is a developmental disorder that has baffled researchers for
Autism is a neural development disorder that affects a person’s ability in socializing, communicating, and repeating behaviors. In this paper, the working mechanism of neutrons is first described and then the organization of the human brain is illustrated. Finally, autism is analyzed with respect to its causes from bio-psychological perspectives.
This paper will discuss the characteristics or Autism Spectrum Disorder, including its symptoms, treatments, and possible causes. This paper will also highlight the differences between Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) and Asperger Disorder(AD). Autism spectrum disorders effect one in 110 births in the United States. Autism spectrum disorders are severe, incurable developmental disorders whose symptoms, including impairments in social interaction and communication, emerge during the first two years of life. Asperger disorder distinguishes from Autistic disorder because its presence may not become clear until primary school, when its social and behavioral effects become problematic.
Autism is a behavioral syndrome usually presenting behavior abnormalities before the child is thirty months of age. These behavioral abnormalities include marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities and stereotyped, receptive behaviors. Although the exact etiology of autism is not known it is now believed that it is a dysfunction of one or more unidentified brain systems and not the result of parental and environmental influences. Variations in symptomology and in prognosis among autistic persons depend on both the severity and the extent of the underlying brain dysfunction (Parritz, Troy 136). Several studies have been conducted including neuron anatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission
The diagnostic description of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) includes disorders that were distinct diagnoses under the “category pervasive developmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), including autism, pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Asperger syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder. The new classification system in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), have struggled to obtain employment after completing high school or college. In many studies of young adults with ASD, low rates of employment are reported (4.1 and 11%) despite their intellectual abilities. Moreover, research on interventions for adults with ASD is scarce, and only 4% of all studies of ASD in 2010 were longitudinal studies.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental that includes disordersocial impairments, difficulty in communicating verbally and nonverbally, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Autism was first diagnosed in the early 1940’s. Signs of Autism and diagnosis usually occur before the child becomes 3 years of age. Autism occurs in children about 1–2 per 1,000 people worldwide. It is diagnosed more in children that are boys rather than girls. The number of children diagnosed with Autism has drastically increased since the 1980’s with still, no known cause. Although, some scientists have come up with the theory that Autism may be hereditary or environmental causes.
There are many theories on the autism spectrum condition. People believe that certain types of injections such as the MMR jab can cause autism although there is no hard evidence to say it does. Some people think that it runs in a family gene or can be cause by premature birth or even someone’s diet.
Autism is the fastest-growing developmental disorder in the United States. As such, the medical community has a clear interest in learning about the nuances and subtleties that characterize ASD. Learning about the myriad causes and influences that characterize ASD is helpful. In elucidating the things that tend to underlie ASD, it is hoped that more can be learned about the disorders that fill the spectrum.
(The) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD),commonly known as Autism, revolves around an abnormal development of the brain. The Centers for Disease Control describe it as (a) “development disabilities that cause substantial impairments in social interaction, communication,and the presence of unusual behaviors and interests”. Some of the common impairments include avoiding eye contact and holding a conversation; it also affects executive functioning tasks such as reasoning and planning. In addition, the disorder correlates with disabilities such as an attention deficit, lack of motor coordination, and physical health issues, such as sleep disturbance. (The) ASD has no single known cause, but it might relate to two factors:genes and environment. It initiates before the age of 2 to 3, and it lasts throughout a person’s life span. It affects (the) boys four times more than (the) girls, which holds true for all racial, ethnic, and social groups.