Etymological Survey of the English Word-Stock

2097 Words Oct 26th, 2012 9 Pages
Etymological survey of the English word-stock
Learning objects:
After you have studied the material you should be able:
a) To speak on: -The term "native (word-stock), sources of borrowing, “origin of borrowing”. -To give characteristic of the words of "native origin"
b) Borrowings in English language (causes, ways, their assimilation, etc.)
c) To speak on the interrelation between native and borrowed elements in the English language.

Literature to be studied:
1. A course in Modern English Lexicology. By R. Ginsburg and others pp. 209-228.
2. English Lexicology. By Antrushina. Ch. З. pр.44-56 (n. 9 pp.48-54) Ex. 1, ch.4.p.62-71..Ex.l,?,3,o.71-72.
3.The English word. By I. Arnold pp. 248-55. Ch. 14
4.
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They include • Most of the auxilary and modal verbs: shall, will, should, would, must, can, may, etc. • Pronouns: I, you, he, my, your, his, who, whose. • Prepositions: in, out, on, under, etc. • Numerals: one, two, three, four, etc. • Conjunctions; and, but, till, as, etc. National words of Anglo-Saxon origin include: such groups as words denoting: • Parts of the body ( head, hand, arm, back, etc.) • Members of the family and closest relatives (father, mother, brother, son, wife) • Natural phenomena and planets (snow, rain, wind, frost, sun, the Moon) • Animals (horse, cow, sheep, cat) • Qualities and properties (old, young, cold, hot, heavy, light, white, long, etc.) • Common actions (do, make, go, come, see, hear, eat, etc.) Most of the native words have undergone striking transformation in semantic structure and as a result are nowadays highly polysemantic. E.g. the word "finger" does not only denote a part of a hand as in Old English, but also: 1) the part of a glove covering one of the fingers; 2)a finger-like part in various machines; 3) a hand of a clock; 4)an index; 5) a unit of measurement Highly polysemantic are the words man, head, go, etc. Most native words are stylistically neutral. Due to their semantic characteristic and great stability most native words possess a wide range of lexical and grammatical valence. Many of them enter a number of phraseological units, e. g. the word
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