ETYMOLOGY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA
A. paniculata is a large genus of herbs found in the Indo-Malaya, Africa, Brazil and also the central of America Northward into Mexico (Alagesaboopathi, 2000). It is an annual plant which grows to the height of 1 – 3 ft. It is one of the most widespread plants used in the Unani and Ayurvedic traditional medicines. It is an erect and branched plant with lanceolate green leaves (Rammohan, 2009)
2.2. DISTRIBUTION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PLANT
A. paniculata consists of 28 species of small shrubs essentially distributed in tropical Asia (Alagesaboopathi 2000). The plant is distributed numerously in South eastern Asia-India, Sri Lanka (Trivedi 2010)., Indonesia, Pakistan and other Asian countries (Aronson, 2009) It…show more content… Flavonoids can be isolated from the leaves, but it is mainly found in the roots (Akbar 2011).
A. paniculata has shown a broad range of pharmacological effects. For instance, prevention of cold, antimalarial, antidiarrheal, antihyperglycemic effects, suppression of cancer cells, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, choleretic, hypocholesterolmic and adaptogenic effects.and anti-flammatory properties (Hidalgo et al. 2013).
The aerial part of the plants, which contains a large amount of active compounds, is used medically. Some of the active constituents from the aerial parts include alkanes, ketones, aldehyde, lactones, diterpenoids, diterpene glycosides, flavonoids and flavonoids glycosides (Akbar 2011). Andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata is the major labdane diterpenoid. It exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities (Hidalgo et al. 2013). The leave is found to be containing the highest amount of andrographolide while the seed contains the least amount of andrographolide (Trivedi 2010). It is the most commonly used part for medicinal purposes. Nonetheless, the whole plant and roots are also known to have some limited purposes. It was investigated that the leaves consists of two major bitter principles which are andrographolide and also kalmeghin (Akbar 2011). The latter is found after many experiments had been carried out. Below is the chemical structure of