European Political Transformation Essay

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In 21st century Europe, along with America, the idea of individual rights is something that is taken for granted. It is almost unimaginable to think of a time where the freedom of speech, right to vote, and ability to run for office were not automatically a given right for the majority of the population. For the most part, these changes came about during the mid-to late nineteenth century. Some philosophers, psychologists, and even scientists shared their opinions through their works during this era. These famous works commented on or even helped further generate the political reformation. The countless revolutions and political reconstructions of the eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century established a few democratic governments…show more content…
They were able to amend the injustices of Parliament. One example of the corruption would be the representation. Both the House of Lords and the House of Commons were composed of Aristocratic landowners, who were looking out for their own interests and voted accordingly. England was able to regulate this and allow others to join the House of Commons. In addition to this reform, journalists were given the right to sit in when Parliament met, and inform the public of the on goings. One new philosophy that helped to introduce the concept of individual rights to Europe was Utilitarianism. Created by John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism still is a widely spread concept. Mill’s “Greatest Happiness Principle” declared that in life, there was only pleasure and pain. Whether it is a noble act or not, the correct thing to do was to attempt to give pleasure to the greatest possible amount of people, even if it hurts a smaller group of people (Mill 4). In addition to this, Mill also believed in basic human rights, such as freedom of thought and action, or as he called them “liberty of conscience”, “liberty of thought and feeling”, and “liberty of each individual”. At the time, this seemed to be a radical idea for one to be able to have a “freedom of opinion” regarding religion, politics, science, and morality. Religion was a particularly hot topic in England, which had been constantly been flip-flopping on monarchs based on
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