Evaluate Two Models or Theories of One Cognitive Process with Reference to Research Studies.

1237 Words Oct 15th, 2012 5 Pages
Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.
The two models or theories I will be looking at for the cognitive process of Memory are the Multi Store Memory Model and the Reconstructive Memory theory. I will be discussing the strengths and limitations of the model and the theory as well as including a few research studies to support my argument.
The Multi Store Memory Model (MSMM) was founded by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) and was one of the first models on the structure of memory. It shows that something you remember begins as environmental stimuli and is then passed on as sensory memory. If the person is focusing on it or if it is believed to be important it is passed on to the Short-term
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It relates to the Schema Theory in that the person’s reconstructions of a memory is taken from what they know about the situation from their ‘Schema’, a packet of information we make on everything we encounter. Schemata influence our attention; we are more likely to pay attention to something that fits into our schema. Therefore the facts we focus on in our memories will be altered by what fits into our schema.

Bartlett’s theory was based on his experiment called ‘The War of the Ghosts’. The War of the Ghosts was a Native American story and his participants were British people. He got the first people to read the story to tell it to someone else and then that person to another and so on. He noticed that the story shortened in length a lot he also noticed that the terminology in the story was changed to suit their culture. For example the word 'canoe' was changed to 'boat'. This supports the theory of reconstructive memory due to the fact that the British people changed the vocabulary to suit the words in their own schemata in their altered versions of the stories. They reconstructed the story according to their schemas.

The study was one of the first to investigate complex memory and provided evidence for the reconstructive memory theory as well as stimulating further research. A
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