Qualitative research is subjective data and is often used in the social sciences (Sarantakos 2013, p. 48). Qualitative research is devoted to gathering facts, this can be completed through personal experiences, behaviours, and observations (Sarantakos 2013, p. 46). The purpose of qualitative research is to gather an in depth understanding of human behaviour and the explanations for the behaviour (Martijn & Sharpe 2006, p. 1). An issue with only using a qualitative method is efficacy, qualitative studies cannot address relationships between variables with the degree of accuracy that is required to establish social trends (Sarantakos 2013, p. 46).
Power point slide Qualitative research is a difficult term to define…. Nevertheless, it is important to be familiar with some definitions in the field. The definition provided by Creswell 2009 is enlightening because it incorporates ……….. most important part of definition for me were reports detailed views of informants and natural setting.
Qualitative research key characteristics are the researcher immerse her/himself in the setting, contexts of inquiry are not contrived they are natural, want the subjects to speak for themselves, attend to the experience as a what not as separate variables, these is no one general method, the process entail appraisal about what was studied and it implies a direct concern with expertise as it is lived or felt or undergone (Hughes, 2006)
Qualitative research is subject to judgments about the data and synthesizes the findings using specialized approaches such as experimental or non-experimental. Researchers often opt to use non-experimental approaches in studies using surveys, interviews, observations, and case studies. Even though an experimental approach is appropriate in quantitative research, it further enables researchers to find answers and collect data (Bagozzi & Yi, 2012). This approach is unique in its hypotheses and the study of behavior, making it valid and reliable.
Qualitative research reflects different ways that researcher’s collect data and explore all of the information through literature review. Participant’s that are reviewing is often observed for analysis while “the role of the researcher focuses as the primary data collection instrument necessitates the identification of personal values, assumptions and biases at the outset of the study; Qualitative researchers ask at least one central question” (Creswell, 2014, which can be explored in several contexts with further questions. According to the text Research Design (2014) “the researcher’s role is typically involved in a
Credibility is similar to internal validity in quantitative studies; if a study is credible, the reader can have faith that the study and its findings are accurate; to determine credibility the reader should look for the use of standard procedures, extended observation and/or contact with the participants, member checking, and reexamination of the data (Connelly, 2016). Dependability, refers to the constancy of the data over time and condition, and is comparable to reliability in quantitative research. However, in qualitative studies, it is important to understand that the study’s nature affects its conditions. Measures that denote a dependable study include peer debriefings, and the maintenance process logs (Connelly,
Qualitative research can often be labelled as biased and anecdotal however Anderson (2010) argues that when carried out rigorously it can be unbiased, in-depth and creditable, in fact becoming a leading research method for evidence based nursing. White (2006) explains that when the research is based on people’s perceptions then qualitative research is appropriate, it aids in developing an understanding for peoples understanding, feelings values and opinions. Qualitative research seeks to develop explanations for social trends/events, thus encouraging detail and depth whilst creating openness (Bamberger, 2000). In addition IVONNE (2004) reasons that qualitative research gives brand new insights by providing differing ideas on current practices. On the other hand, Abawl (2008) highlights that data collection can be very time consuming, open to interpretation and consequently influenced by researcher bias.
Gabbay J & le May write “Evidence Based Guidelines Or Collectively Constructed "Mindlines?" Ethnographic Study Of Knowledge Management In Primary Care”, which is a qualitative research to study the collective and individual data methods.(1) In this essay, I will use Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) as a framework to evaluate and analyse the strengths and weakness of the quality of this paper. The paper of Yardley Lucy(2000) as well as kitto et al(2008) will also help to shape the evaluation process.(2, 3)
A qualitative methodological approach was the obvious choice in that it allows for the collection and interpretation of stories, narratives, interviews and other forms of non-quantifiable data. A qualitative approach also does not demand or strive for detached objectivity of the researcher but instead encourages the disclosure of researcher bias and the engagement of the researcher with the research and subjects, often in the role of participant-observer (Dade, Tartakov, Hargrave, & Leigh,
Maxwell (2005) also notes that qualitative research can be used to address various issues and is not restricted to one ontological stance. The method also involves developing a relationship with the people one is studying, an aspect that is important in defining the authenticity of the data and determining the course of action.
Following a critical overview of the literature, this chapter outlines the research methodology. It will provide a justification for a qualitative methodological approach and specification of methods employed. Highlighting the appropriateness of interviews and focus groups in relation to the methodology and overall research. It will also provide recognition of their relative strengths and limitations.
Epistemological criticism argues that all approaches are unlikely to produce consistent evidence because of the inherent property. It will generate a new viewpoint. However, through abundant reading, triangulation will enlarge width and depth in qualitative research and provide an analysis with security- a overall perspective. Participants can improve the validity of research. Bloor (1978) argues that sociologists can establish a correspondence with participants, in which participants can identify, give assent and judgement to sociologists.
Qualitative research is conducted in a natural setting and attempts to understand a human problem by developing a holistic narrative and reporting detailed views of informants about the culture of a problem. It forms a report with pictures and words. One of the most important distinctions that sets qualitative research apart from more traditional types of research is that qualitative research is holistic in that researchers study phenomena in their entirety rather than narrowing the focus to specific defined variables” (p. 93). Similarly, Cresswell (1984) indicated that qualitative research “is defined as an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building a holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants, and conducted in a natural setting” (p. 2). Cresswell’s definition clearly delineates the major characteristics of qualitative research. Pg. 50 (Smith & Davis, 2010).
When utilizing a qualitative approach, the task becomes one of determining the qualitative method to be used. Additionally, Stake (2010) used purpose, research design, and methodical data techniques as a way of classifying types of qualitative research. Similarly, Cresswell & Cresswell (2007) spoke of five practices of qualitative research. These five practices consist of biography, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, ethnography, and case study. This researcher chose a phenomenological study for this research project.
Qualitative research is a technique of promoting research that stresses the quality according to the user’s point of view and approaches. In depth interviews and focus groups are best examples of qualitative research. [Laura Lake, 2009]