Thus, there is a continuous flow of terminology, focus, and technique from the counseling session to the supervision session, and back again. Several illustrations of specific psychotherapy-based supervision models
Supervision skills are now acknowledged as a crucial competency for all psychologists (APA, 2011). The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP, 2011) has called for experience with supervision making it necessary for supervisors to demonstrate well-developed clinical skills. Although, this ability alone does not guarantee aptitude in supervision. Understanding of the best practices in supervision, the competence to create an effective supervisory relationship, expertise with supervisory approaches, and competencies in guiding the process of supervision to foster professional development for supervisees’ are also essential (Harvey & Pearrow, 2010). Quality supervision not only improves the development of the
When comparing and contrasting the differences in the three approaches, I will review the relationship between client and counsellor. I will attempt to discover how the relationship is formed and how it is maintained during the therapeutic process. Once this has been established, I will then look at how the changes occur in the therapeutic relationship and which techniques will be used. I will compare and contrast the approaches of Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis. I will look at how their theories have impacted on the counselling processes in modern times and throughout history.
It is said that a known part of many clinicians work is overseeing psychologist in training which may require their own set of exceptional ability to efficiently guide practicum, internship along with post-doc trainees. This created model is all done to develop exceptional therapists who later develop into successful practitioners. The Psychotherapy based supervision model started as the practice of observing, assisting, and receiving feedback. It is said that the supervision follows the skills and techniques of the specific theory or model being practiced by the supervisor and supervisee.
The discrimination model of supervision developed by Bernard & Goodyear, (1998) has three primary focus areas in training novice counselors these include use of intervention, what the supervisee is doing in the session that is observable, conceptualization or how the session work is being conducted and the level of understanding the supervisee has regarding client themes and application of specific counseling session interventions, and personalization, the supervisors own approach or method. This model embeds three essential supervisory roles, teacher, counselor and consultant in providing effective supervision. The teacher's primary
By the supervisee’s understanding their own strengths and areas needing growth and support, they can identify and initiate their own future learning development as therapists and supervisors.
Clinical counseling supervision has an integral role in the professional and personal development of counselors-in-training, referred to here as supervisees. Many definitions of the term supervision exist in counselor education literature and most researchers agree that supervision in and of itself is an intervention (Bernard & Goodyear, 2014). A synthesis of supervision definitions proposed by Lambie and Sias (2009) best describes my view of supervision and role as clinical supervisor:
Clinical supervision is significant to counseling because of the crucial role it plays in the process with regards to providing emotional support and extra education to counselors receiving supervision. The significance of this concept to counseling is also attributed to its use in enhancing the professional performance and quality of work of counselors through effective monitoring and evaluation. This is basically because the clinical supervision process involves the counselor’s personal reflection regarding his/her thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which result in improved self-understanding and self-knowledge.
The kinship between the supervisor and trainee is essential in defining the type and quality of counseling supervision, such as counseling theory of the director, expectations, monitoring and evaluating styles of participants, becoming the experimental features that guide trainees’ behavior during supervision (Ganske, Gnilka, Ashby, & Rice, 2015).
Practicum is the most important part of the graduate counseling program. It’s not only the guidelines to be an effective and efficient counselor, but also a foundation where the beginning master’s level counselors build skills and techniques to work with supervisors and clients in the initial year of their career. This journal helps the writer understand the process of growth and things that need focus to become a good supervisee and eventually a good counselor.
Allen, G., Szollos, S., & Williams, B. (1986). Doctoral students' comparative evaluations of best and worst psychotherapy supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17(2), 91-99.
In the growing area of life coaching, there are many boundaries and considerations a psychologist would have to consider. Life coaching can grow in areas of inter-based connections or one-on-one sessions in an office. The safety considerations would be has to be diligently placed in the policies of the life coach to abide by and possibly initialing the references of the policies in the informed consent. The American Psychology Association advises on some aspects of what could happen in a life coaching services for psychologists. The International Coach Federation (ICF) is another avenue of referencing. ICF does not cater to the psychologists, although they have people who have had prior experience of coaching and education that provide professional areas of coaching Code of Ethics (Anderson, Williams, and Kramer, 2012). Using some references provided by the ICF or the APA could lead to some better solutions for ethical issues that may arise.
As the field continues to expand, a plethora of careers and opportunities have and are becoming available. Of course, with anything new and/or unfamiliar, there is question of credibility and moral. Since law is a major component involved in this subfield of psychology; the ethics involved in the practice must also be considered. In order to fully understand
Supervisors are expected to maintain ethical professionalism, personal and social relationships with their supervisee which in this case did not happen. The case study clearly states that the supervisor and supervisee were close friends and therefore feared giving a true account of the counseling process because it would ruin their friendly engagement.
In order to be a licensed counselor a professional has to take exams that based on ethics. The counselor must function at a mandatory level of competence with knowledge of the basic standards. However, most clients would appreciate an aspirational counselor that conducts themselves above reproach. They understand the sprit and principle behind the code of ethical behavior. There are consequences if the counselor does not know or follow the codes. They may walk the line that runs between ethical and unethical behavior or in violation of ethical code. It will put their reputation at risk. It is best to focus on the client and their best interest. The counselor needs to advocate for the client. “Client’s needs are best met when practitioner monitors their own ethics” (Corey et all, 2015 p.14). “The professional can rely on the basic moral code that Kitchener (1984) and Meara and colleagues (1996) developed to be the foundation of the highest principles for all professionals to live by and promote into their practice” (Corey et al., 2015, p.17). The principle components are autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, fidelity and veracity” (Corey et al., 2015, p.17). The professional promotes autonomy so the client is empowered to be autonomous. It is unethical for the professional to do harm to clients. Nonmaleficence guards against