Evaluation Of Screening For Breast Cancer

1371 WordsJul 3, 20166 Pages
GGrones_Module 6_Initial Post 1. Choose one of the screenings listed in the USPSTF Guide to Clinical Preventative Services. Evaluate the screening using the following criteria: reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, and cost-benefit ratio. Discuss any ethical issues associated with this screening. In 2002, the U. S. Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF, 2002, 2014) issued its’ recommendation statement regarding breast cancer screening for the general population. It looked at the efficacy of five screening methods in reducing breast cancer mortality: film mammography; clinical breast examination (CBE); breast self-examination (BSE); digital mammography; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two studies were commissioned: a…show more content…
The USPTF also concluded there was insufficient evidence to assess benefits verses harms for digital mammography, MRI, BSE, and CBE in populations not at risk (USPSTF, 2002). Highlights from the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Conference (NCCN) indicated there was agreement on the efficacy of film mammography screening (Bevers, Bibbins-Domengo, & Oeffinger, 2016). However, The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the NCCN disagreed on two items: when to begin screening (40, 45, or 50 years of age) and frequency of screening, annual versus biennial (Bevers, Bibbins-Domengo, & Oeffinger, 2016). The NCCN recommends annual screening to begin at 40 years of age after counseling for risks and benefits. Regarding reliability and validity, the USPSTF formulated its’ current recommendations based on eight randomized controlled trails and over 200 observational trials. The NCCN argues that the studies used by the USPTF were done in the 1970s and 1980s using single view scans and older techniques. The NCCN further argued that when studying real world observations using current state-of-the art mammography equipment, and adjusting for confounders, the mortality reduction is closer the 35% in certain populations, as opposed to, the 18% mortality rate cited by the USPSTF (Bevers, Bibbins-Domengo, & Oeffinger, 2016). With regards to benefits, the NCCN argued that women screened are less likely to be diagnosed with advance stage breast cancer, and
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