Effectiveness was investigated and evaluated by considering if all the EIA stages were followed appropriately. A review of recent experience world-wide suggests four necessary ingredients for effective EIA are as follows (Sadler B, 1996): l. Appropriate timing in initiating the assessment so that the project proposal is reviewed early enough to scope for development of reasonable alternatives to the project without affecting the environment and the community around; 2. Clear specific directions in the form of terms of reference or guidelines covering priority issues of the public involvement, timelines, and opportunities for information and input at key decision-making stages. 3. Quality information and products fostered by compliance with procedural guidelines and use of “good practices” of environmental management and monitoring plan; and 4. Receptivity of decision makers and proponents to the results of the EIA so that EIA decisions are implemented. All the issues above must be investigated for the effectiveness of the EIA at Buzwagi Goldmine.
Effective EIA aid in decision-making and achievement of sustainable development of the project without causing negative environmental outcomes (Glasson et. al.2005). Literature also states that EIA is effective if it achieves its goals for environmental protection, assesses and mitigates impacts throughout the life of a project (Lee et. al. 1999). Development projects have life cycles, which