Evolution By Natural Selection By Charles Darwin

1947 Words Mar 11th, 2016 8 Pages
Evolution by natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, requires a population to have three necessities. These include variation, which leads to differences in fitness, and a form of heredity for this variation (Bourrat 2014). Natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, and favorable variations and cannot produce great or sudden modifications because it can act only by very short and slow steps (Darwin 1859). Nevertheless, there are always numerous potential selective pressures in nature that limit a population’s evolution and fitness like predation. Plants form the foundation on which communities and ecosystems are assembled and which food webs are created. Accordingly, the understanding of factors that establish plant distribution, abundance is essential for our understanding of ecology at large. As major constituents of most ecosystems and chronic agents of plant damage, consumers have great potential to heavily impact plant abundance and distribution (Maron and Crone 2006). Particularly, herbivore populations like Eurosta solidaginis typically sustain heavy attacks from tortuous arrays of natural enemies (Bergman and Tingey 1979). They frequently encounter parasitoid wasps and avian predators, which impact the survival of the gallmakers. If a survivorship varies among gallmakers with different traits, natural enemy attacks can potentially alter their traits in later generations (Warren et al. 1989). Based upon other experiments…
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