Evolution Of Nursing Care Theories In The 21St Century

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One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable (McCance, 1999). Nursing sensitive indicators reflect the structure, process and outcomes of nursing care, and thus are highly relative to 21st century healthcare stakeholders. For instance, one of the more common occurances in a broad range of healthcare facilities are patient falls particularly for older patients. This is quite serious overall, and is one of the most often cited malpractice suits against nurses who fail to take adequate safety measures based on risk (Wilson, 1998). More often than not, nurses tend to act as the "moral agents" within the system because they are the locus of communication between the physician, the patient, and the family. The modern nurse leader must act with moral courage and conviction since "nursing leaders are responsible for creating cultures that support acts of courage in nursing"¦ [because] these acts have the potential to increase nurse retention, promote patient comfort, relieve patient suffering, and enhance the reputation of the organization" (Edmonson, 2010). This is difficult, at times, particularly when dealing with patient "falls" because the

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