Evolution of Management

1893 Words8 Pages
Evolution of Management
Jason Kolff
American Public University
January 27, 2008

In this paper I will be explaining the evolution of management from the beginning of the industrial revolution to present which includes Classical School of Management, the Human Relations/ Behavioral School of Management, Theory X and Y, the Scientific Approach, Contingency Approach, and Theory Z. I will also be comparing the classical style and the present style to each
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He argued that management was a universal process that consisting of functions, which he termed planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Fayol believed that all managers performed these functions and that the functions distinguished management as a separate discipline of study apart from accounting, finance, and production. [2] Fayol also presented fourteen principles of management, which included; the division of work, authority and responsibility, unity of command and direction, centralization, subordinate initiative, team spirit/espirit de corps, initiative, stability of personnel, order, equity, discipline, unity of direction, remuneration/ fair compensation, scalar chain/chain of command. Behavioral or Human Relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations. It has been referred to as the neoclassical school because it was initially a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approaches to management. The human relations movement began with the Hawthorne Studies which were conducted from 1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. One of the major conclusions of the Hawthorne studies was that workers ' attitudes are associated with productivity. Another was that the workplace is a social system and informal group influence, could have a powerful effect on individual behavior. A third was that the style of supervision is an

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