Evolution of Management Theory

3679 Words Mar 24th, 2011 15 Pages
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Managing is one of the most important human activities. From the time human beings began forming social organizations to accomplish aims and objectives they could not accomplish as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As society continuously relied on group effort, and as many organized groups have become large, the task of managers has been increasing in importance and complexity. Henceforth, managerial theory has become crucial in the way managers manage complex organizations. It has to be unequivocally emphasized that managers who mix management theories in their day-to-day practice, have better chances of managing their organizations more efficiently
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Indeed, the purpose of an organizational structure is to help in creating an environment for human performance. However, designing an organizational structure is not an easy managerial task because many problems are encountered in making structures fit situations, including both defining the kind of jobs that must be done and finding the people to do them.
Staffing involves filling, and keeping filled, the positions in the organization structure. This is done by identifying work-force requirements; inventorying the people available; and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers of, compensating, and training or otherwise developing both candidates and current jobholders to accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently. Leading is the influencing of people so that they will contribute to organization and group goals; it has to do predominantly with the interpersonal aspect of managing. Most important problems to managers arise from people – their desires and attitudes, their behavior as individuals and in groups. Hence, effective managers need to be effective leaders. Leading involves motivation, leadership styles and approaches and communication. Controlling, for example, budget for expense, is the measuring and correcting of activities of subordinates to ensure that events conform to plans. It measures performance against goals and plans, shows where negative deviations exist, and, by

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