Evolution of Production and Operations Management

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"Operations management (OM) is defined as the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm's primary products and services. Like marketing and finance, OM is a functional field of business with clear line management responsibilities."

(Chase, Jacobs, Aquilano, 2006:9)

"Operations management is the management of processes or systems that create goods and/or provide services. It encompasses forecasting, capacity planning, scheduling, managing inventories, assuring quality, motivating employees, deciding where to locate facilities, buying material and equipment and maintaining them, and more."

(Stevenson, 2002:4)

At the most fundamental level, operations management is about getting
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They were not always popular with workers, who sometimes thought the methods were used to unfairly increase output without a corresponding increase in compensation. Certainly some companies did abuse workers in their quest for efficiency. Eventually, the public outcry reached the halls of the U.S. Congress, and hearings were held on the matter. Taylor himself was called to testify in 1911, the same year in which his classic book _The Principles of Scientific Management_ was published. The publicity from those hearings actually helped scientific management principles to achieve wide acceptance in industry.

A number of other pioneers also contributed heavily to this movement, including the following:

_Frank Gilbreth_ was an industrial engineer who is often referred to as the father of motion study. He developed the principles of motion economy that could be applied to incredibly small portions of a task.

_Lillian Gilbreth_, a psychologist and the wife of Frank Gilbreth, worked with her husband, focusing on the human factor in work. (The Gilbreths were the subject of a classic 1950s film, _Cheaper by the Dozen_.) Many of her studies in the 1920s dealt with worker fatigue.

_Henry Gantt_ recognized the value of nonmonetary rewards to motivate workers, and developed a widely used system for scheduling, called Gantt charts. _Henry Ford_, the great industrialist, employed scientific management techniques in his factories.


Both Taylor

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