Evolving Concepts of Pathogenesis, Transmission, Diagnosis, Treatment and Antibiotic Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

1010 WordsJan 25, 20184 Pages
INTRODUCTION One-forth of this world’s people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is the reason of virtually millions of deaths all over the world every year. This ratio is more than the deaths caused by any other pathogen. From the start of the twentieth century, tuberculosis has become a relatively uncommon disease instead of the most common reason of deaths worldwide [1-3]. The incidence of tuberculosis has waned in the developed countries. The World Health Organization reports that more than ten million cases and two to three million deaths occur annually due to tuberculosis [5]. By another estimate, it is said that at least one billion persons are infected with M. tuberculosis worldwide [6]. PATHOGENESIS There is an alternative complement pathway for opsonization of M. tuberculosis. This pathway is used for the ingestion of the pathogen by monocytes through linking of mycobacteria-bound C3 to complement receptors CR1 and CR3 [7]. This process holds central importance in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. The physiologic working of the immunity of host is undermined by the bacterium, so as to facilitate its entry into the cells of the host, where it will probably live for decades. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are the primary cells to reach the position of infection. The neutrophils are the immune cells that have the capability of ingesting and killing M. tuberculosis [8]. The bacteria may survive for ages inside these cells. However, the neutrophils have a

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