Gregg Barak (2007) pointed how American’s failing mental health care system has attributed the overrepresentation of the mentally ill in U.S jails “Because of the large-scale denationalization of mental health facilities in the 1970s and 1980s, the number of people struggling with mental illness on their own has risen over the past three decades, and social institutions have been less than responsive to their needs.” (Barak, 2007: 587) Steven Raphael and Michael Stoll (2013) drew attention to the overrepresentation of mentally ill offenders in U.S jails and prisons. “Approximately half of state and federal prison inmates and over 60 percent of jail inmates report having mental health problems or symptoms indicative of mental illness. The
Ever since the first prison opened in the United States in 1790, incarceration has been the center of the nations criminal justice system. Over this 200 year period many creative alternatives to incarceration have been tried, and many at a much lower cost than imprisonment. It wasn’t until the late 1980’s when our criminal justice systems across the country began experiencing a problem with overcrowding of facilities. This problem forced lawmakers to develop new options for sentencing criminal offenders.
Do you know that between 1955 and 1998, we have about 558,000 patients dropped to 60,000 patients in our country and state mental hospital? During this time, there have a national shift between state hospitals and community-based facilities in mental health treatment, it’s called deinstitutionalization. In 1965, the Congress has created Medicaid. It is a payment for people who are in community mental health centers. In addition, President Jimmy Carter had signed the Mental Health System Act in 1980. It provided grants in a straight line to community mental health centers, but the time of fund is very short. Because when President Ronald Reagan is on the place, he cuts one third of spend to federal mental health. According to The New
Clyde is your average American; he is a hardworking family man who tries to do everything in his power to make his family live happily. Due to the recent economic plunge he has lost his job and his wife is not making enough to feed their family. Feeling worthless and desperate to help his suffering family, Clyde decided to rob his neighbor. It was an unarmed theft of under $250; unfortunately Clyde was caught and sentenced to serve 1 year in the County Prison. Clyde never wanted to do it and was very uncomfortable doing it, but he thought it would help his family and allow them to go one more month with food on the table. Even though there are alternative forms of rehabilitation that would have kept him out of prison and been
Over the years, many theorists have been considering alternative type sanctions for offenders, because of the ever growing issue of prison overcrowding of our jails at state, local and federal level. The use of alternative type sanctions seem to be growing, and is getting a second look from many prisons, and jails as an option for some offender. Also, “in addition to relieving jail and prison overcrowding, the level of risk many offenders represent is too much for probation, but
Crime rates are very high within America, and when you do the crime, you have to pay the crime. Many people are incarcerated due to the type of crimes they commit. When you’re incarcerated, you’re sent to prison. I always had somewhat of an idea how being imprisoned works but I wasn’t fully aware of how the routine worked, I just know the basic steps like committing a crime, getting caught, sent to jail, go to trial, then the judge sentenced you depending on how bad the crime was, I didn’t know anything else passed that. As a curious student of Kingsborough, I’ve pulled up a lot of researches that helped expand my knowledge of incarceration practices.
Mass incarceration is a barrier effecting many minorities and communities. The growth in incarceration rates in the United States over the past 40 years is historically reoccurring. According to statistics the war on drugs is the number one drive into our prisons. It took a toll on how diligently police enforcement do their jobs, communities, citizens and our 14th amendment rights which addresses equal protection under the law to all citizens, the amendment also addresses what is called "due process", which prevents citizens from being illegally deprived of life, liberty, or property. Marijuana and Narcotics are the most common drug when it comes to distributing and possession. Drug use and abuse is an expensive problem in the United States, both financially and socially. Another factor that contribute to mass incarnation rates
The author, Peter Enns, of “The Public’s Increasing Punitiveness and Its Influence on Mass Incarceration in the United States” is investigating whether the publics rising amounts punitiveness explains the significant rise in incarceration rates in the United States. Also, the author explores the importance of public influence and congressional hearing in relation to mass incarceration of individuals in the United States.
Incarceration is the state in which a person is confined within a prison, this can be known as imprisonment. Imprisonment within the United States is mostly due to the illegal use of drugs. Drug Offenses are the most common cause of incarceration, an astounding forty-six percent, compared to the second most common causes. These causes include the illegal handling, and usage of weapons, explosives, and arson; these Offenses only hold a lightly rounded total of seventeen percent. The list of Offenses continuing from there decrease in percentage rates, the list contains the following in order from greatest to least amount of cases; Immigration, Sex Offenses, Extortion, Fraud, Bribery, Burglary, Larceny, Property Offenses, Robbery, Homicide, Aggravated Assault, and Kidnapping Offenses, Miscellaneous, Courts or Corrections, Banking and Insurance, Counterfeit, Embezzlement, Continuing Criminal Enterprise, then National Security Risks. Ages of those incarcerated have a range from the beginning of adolescence to the elderly. The security system of prisons is separated into five main categories; Minimum, Low, Medium, High, and Unclassified. Minimum and low-security levels are for common offenses such as theft. Medium and high classifications are for homicide and national security risks. Unclassified is for those who have not yet been assigned an area of security.
The main argument within this article was that America has a poor approach to incarceration and is ultimately an expensive failure. However, the article provided many points on how our justice system could be improved upon. For example, they could change the harsh sentencing rules, crimes that are currently felonies (drugs), and the rehabilitation programs. All of these things would help to lower the incarceration rate which would ultimately lower overcrowding within our jails and prisons. Though these tools may take time to be put in place they would have highly beneficial outcomes.
The United States incarceration system is a structural foundation of punishment in which is formed by robust authoritarian power. The United States criminal justice system is not an institution to be underestimated, as it represents the highest incarceration rate of all world nations at a staggering 700 inmates per 100 thousand citizens (Krisberg, 7). Based on the social and political structure of democracy in the United States, it is argued that incarceration systems should follow the same roots of equality and freedom; however, the current format demonstrates otherwise. Currently, the United States criminal justice system faces issues of inhumane treatment due to the sheer overcrowding, which restrict inmates from just treatment within penitentiaries. This lack of equality standards was argued in the 2011 court case, Brown v. Plata, which California prison systems were forced to decrease prisons overcapacity rate from 175% to 137.5% due to the overwhelming amount of inmate mistreatment (Koehler, 3). In the decision of Brown v. Plata (2011), supreme court justice Anthony Kennedy argued dignity should be an organizing principle in the United States justice system and demonstrated in all correctional facilities. Anthony Kennedy, along with guest lecturer, Jonathan Simon characterize dignity as a fundamental piece to the incarceration system, and without it, inmates are victimized to cruel and inhumane treatment. Dignity does not consist of domination and unequal treatment of
While reading this chapter, I was quite surprised to see the high rates of incarceration in the United States when compared to other Western countries. By simply examining opinion polls of Americans, it would seem that the criminal justice system is too lenient, which results in the propagation of the leniency myth. These findings have important implications for public trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. Confidence arises out of positive attitudes; if people believe that sentences are overly lenient they will have little confidence in the courts, regardless of the reality of sentencing practice (NCSC, 2007). On the basis of these survey findings alone, politicians, policy-makers and the media have concluded that the public
The United States currently over-incarcerates its citizens, and it is not morally justified because it is unsustainable, inhumane, and the product of unethical policies. Approximately 2.3 million people are currently incarcerated in state and federal prisons, juvenile correctional facilities, and jails (Wagner & Rabuy, 2015). Before continuing a practice that affects such a large number of our citizens (not just those in prison, but their families and communities as well), we need to ask the question: Is this working? Is it ethical to continue a practice that may be doing more harm than good?
Incarceration is thought of as a positive form of punishment, and negative form of punishment. The opinion varies with the type of person, and their experience from jail if they have gone. Most inmates while in prison will tell you it is a horrible place that should be gone. That would allow criminals to be free and that would let them cause harm to others or other illegal activities. Incarceration was not designed to be a paradise, it is a detention center for the bad, and meant for them to be punished. Without jails the world would be filled with even more evil, and would leave people in more danger than they already are.