The concept of energy intake and expenditure refers to the amount of calories per day that an individual consumes, and is the chemical energy in foods which can be metabolized to produce energy available to the body. As stated before energy is obtained from the foods we eat and is used to support an individual’s Basal Metabolic Rate, energy is measured in calories or joules as both units are very small they are multiplied by 1,000 and referred to as kilocalories. Different foods provide us with different amounts of energy, and the potential fuel sources available to exercising muscles are fats – 1 gram fat =9.0kcal = 23kJ,
Nutrition is the basic process of providing the human body with the necessary food for health and growth. While this might seem to be a simple concept, nutrition is exceedingly complex and affects many areas of an individual’s life. One of these areas is exercise. Diet is considered one of the most influential components in improving athletic performance. Optimal nutrition can enhance (a) physical activity, (b) athletic performance and (c) recovery from exercise (Manroe, M.M., Barr, S.I., & Butterfield, G.E., 2000). Optimal nutrition can be characterized as (1) proper selection of food and liquids, (2) timing of ingestion and (3) selection of supplements for ideal exercise performance (Manroe, M.M., Barr, S.I., &
Carbohydrates are considered high octane fuels. Carbohydrate give you fuel for heavy weight lifting sessions. Carbohydrates are the leading source of energy for your body. Your body draws on carbohydrates when working out, which is stored as glycogen in the muscles. Glycogen is the product of glucose. It comes from the breakdown of carbohydrates after the digestion of food. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle. In the process of an intense weight lifting program your glucose level can deplete quickly. This is why it is a must to consume a proper amount of carbohydrates. If you don’t your body will decrease in the amount of weight you can lift and your endurance. The only way to offset this muscle fatigue is too consume the needed carbohydrates. Your diet should consist of 55 to 65 percent of
People who exercise more will have different diets to those who do not exercise. Carbohydrates are very important for athletes as it provides fuel. Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles, and released when needed during exercise. It is easily broken down to provide energy. The other source of energy is fat, but this cannot be converted into energy as quickly as glycogen.
A. Describe two domains from the list above in which you believe demonstrate healthy behaviors.
In this metabolic study, eight men and eight women, whom were competitive, healthy cyclists were selected. This crossover study was conducted on four separate days, each time the participants were told to do light exercise the previous day and eat a typical prerace meal one to two hours prior to the experiment. At random each was given one of three carbohydrate supplements (sports
phosphorylation provides most of the ATP requirement for exercising skeletal muscle. Moderate to heavy exercise requires adequate ATP production dependent on glycolysis and metabolism of glycogenderived glucose. Sustained moderate to heavy exercise is dependent on stored glycogen, which varies from
In a joint study with Deakin University, Australia, and University of Waterloo, Ontario Canada, students analyzed increases in lipid metabolism gene expression in human skeletal muscle tissue after exercise training. Looking at previous studies, endurance exercise elicits increased metabolism of fatty acids (FA) and carbohydrates, in relation with the metabolism of FA it has been shown that up-regulated genes exhibit their corresponding proteins to transport, initiate, bind, and increase enzyme activity in response to exercise. Therefore the hypothesis is that certain genes will show expression and the expression of the corresponding proteins will be more abundant after acute exercise and after an individual has gone through a short term
This concept was called the crossover concept. This concept examined the effect that intensity had on the metabolism of the two macronutrients, at low to moderate intensity the body relies mainly on fat metabolism. At high intensity, the body shifts from mainly fat to CHO metabolism. The general idea of this concept is that around 65% VO2, is where the shift between fat to CHO metabolism occurs. If a person trains for chronically, this shift will occur later on. Horowitz and Klein (2000) reported that prolonged exercise has been shown to increase the fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Several factors that Horowitz and Klein found were: an adaptive response in the muscles where there was an increase in mitochondrial density, increase of capillaries in the muscle, increase in carnitine transferase and an increase in fatty acid binding protein. With an increase in mitochondria density allows more of the fatty acid to enter into the cells and allowing the body to create energy. The increase in capillaries allows for blood to travel to the muscle quicker. With an increase in carnitine transferase, the body can increase the amount of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The increase in fatty acid binding protein, the body can regulate myocyte fatty acid transportation. A study by Martin et al. (1993) reported that after 12 weeks of endurance training, the fat
In this study, researchers used untrained male subjects to compare the effect low volume-high intensity exercise interval (LV-HIIE) and steady state exercise has on anti-inflammatory (IL-6 & IL-10) and antioxidant levels in the blood during and afterwards. Cytokines are proteins, connected to the level of oxidative stress present at that time. Steady state exercise, along with the magnitude of intensity, causes an increase in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A small sample (10) of untrained male subjects completed 3 different exercise bouts.
The body derives it 's energy from four key fuels 1) glucose 2)proteins 3) free fatty acids 4) ketones. The primary determinant of the fuel utilized is the availability of carbohydrate. The body has three storage units that can be utilized during times of calorie deprivation: 1) carbohydrate, which is sotred in liver and the muscles 2) protein, which can be converted to glucose in the liver 3) fat, which is stored primarily in adipose tissue. Under specific conditions a fourth fuel comes into play -ketones which are derived from the incomplete breakdown of free fatty acids. Under normal dietary conditions ketones play a minimal role in energy prodcition. During times of Low carb dieting or starvation diets ketones impact energy production significantly.
An individual engaged in vigorous exercise demands much more energy than a sedentary individual. The supplied energy during a 100 meter sprint or a marathon run comes at a cost, which is the production of ATP (Hill et al.). At the beginning of exercise the body relies on the glycogen stores in muscle that aids in ATP production. Eventually, glucose levels in muscles begin to decrease as the activity continues, it’s also thought that insufficient glucose causes tiredness (Hill et al.) . Glucose must be provided continuously in order to satisfy one’s energy demands. Consequently, glucose is delivered by blood to the muscles. Fatty acids also contribute to the process of generating energy when glucose levels are low, which are broken down to
Depending on the intensity of the exercise the body gets carbohydrates from muscle glycogen. This process starts in the liver and then it travels through blood; to go to the appropriate areas. This only occurs when the blood glucose levels are low, to breakdown stores of glucose. During low intensity fuel is coming from fats.
This is because the energy input is the supply of energy for physical activities and the expenditure is the amount of energy used up when doing exercise. This means that if the intensity of exercise increases more energy is going to be used so more energy is going to be needed as an input. This is due to the muscles needing the energy to work properly at full intensity. This means that the amount of carbohydrates and fat are increased because they have the most glucose in them which the muscles use to work hard. This also means that the amount on calories which are needed a day are increased because this is a measure of energy. When the energy input is the same as energy expenditure it is known as energy balance. (2)
Power activities are very vigorous and highly energy consuming, and the importance of proper nutrition cannot be overemphasized especially when professional athletics is concerned. It is, in fact, a strong determining factor as to the general performance of these power athletes. With the great innovations in the field of sports nutrition, a lot of interest has been put into controlling the quality and quantity of intakes by athletes performing a host of sporting activities to maintain maximum outputs. Studies have shown that athletes who follow proper nutrition practices experience enhanced training adaptations, while those who don’t follow the right nutrition guidelines may impede training adaptations.