Expectancy Theory

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Theories of Motivation: Vroom’s Valence-Expectancy Theory

If you were a manager, wouldn’t you like to know how your employees decide to work hard or goof off? Wouldn’t it be nice to know whether a planned rewards program will have the desired effect—namely, motivating them to perform better in their jobs? Wouldn’t it be helpful if you could measure the effect of bonuses on employee productivity?
These are the issues considered by psychologist Victor Vroom in his expectancy theory, which proposes that employees will work hard to earn rewards that they value and that they consider obtainable.

There are three variables of Vroom’s model given in the form of an equation. Since the mode is multiplicative, all the three variables must
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(iv) Weak empirical support: the empirical support for the Vroom model is insignificant and lacks consistency.
The merits of Vroom theory are:
(i) Basic framework: the Vroom’s model provides a basic framework for interpreting work motivation as Keith Davis put it.
According to Fred Luthans, “the expectancy model is like marginal analysis in economics. The expectancy model attempts to mirror the complex motivational process. From the theoretical standpoint it seems to be a step in the right direction. It is of value in understanding organisational behaviour.
(ii) Appreciation of individual differences: for the first time in a systematic way it draws attention to individual differences in motivation.
As Koontz, O. Donnell and Weihrich pointed out: “one of the great attractions of the Vroom model is that it recognizes the importance of various individual needs and motivations. It does seem more realistic”.
(iii) Clue to harmonization of individual and organisation goals: it clarifies the relationship between individual goals and organisational objectives and thus points to the way how the two can be harmonized.
It is thus a step further from management by objectives. Instead of assuming that satisfaction of a specific need is likely to influence organisational objectives in a certain way we can find out how important to the employee are:
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