Four interval times (PR, RT, TP and RR) measured in seconds were recorded both with the subject at rest and after the subject had exercised. The PR and RT intervals remained virtually unchanged with the PR intervals remaining the same both before and after exercise with an interval time of 0.15 seconds, and the RT interval increase by 0.01 seconds from 0.37 at rest to 0.38 seconds after exercise. More substantial changes were noted in TP and RR intervals. The TP interval decreasing from 0.32 seconds at rest to just 0.08 seconds after exercise, a decrease of 0.24 seconds (just 25% of the resting 0.32 seconds). The RR interval decreased from 0.84 seconds at rest to 0.61 seconds seconds after exercise, a decrease of 0.23 seconds
Exercise increases heart rate by a process of sympathetic autonomic stimulation. Sympathetic (adrenergic) nerves increase the excitability of the sino-atrial node and reduce the P-R interval .As exercise continues, the physiological changes in the body are continuously monitored by a number of physiological systems and the balance of activity of the sympathetic system (speeding up) and the parasympathetic system (slowing down) is constantly adjusted. When exercise is over, the heart rate does not drop immediately as the body has to undergo a period of re adaption to return to the resting state.
After the exercise, we then took the measurements of our pulse, breathing rate and temperature too to see the change. Once we had completed this the first time, we then did it 2 other times, so in total 3 time so that the data was reliable and trustworthy. (Stretch, B., & Whitehouse, M. (2007).
A sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure and heart rate of the subject. First, the basal heart rate and blood pressure for each subject was collected by taking the mean of the data on the left arm from three
During exercise there is an increase in cardiac output, which corresponds to an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. With the increase in oxygen consumption, a greater increase in blood flow occurs. This means there is more oxygen circulating in the blood for the tissues to take up. Due to the increase in blood flow, vasoconstriction of arterioles occurs to maintain mean arterial pressure (Bassett & Edward, 1997). This limits oxygen consumption because some of the blood flow is directed to the brain and skin. It is further pointed out that the heart is another limiting factor because it determines how much blood and oxygen are supplied to the muscles especially when blood flow exceeds maximal cardiac output (Bassett & Edward,
The respiratory monitor measured baseline respiration for a minute. Respiratory rate was also measured by the respiratory monitor throughout the entire experiment. After initial respiratory rate had been measured for about 30 seconds, researchers established a baseline heart rate range using the pulse oximeter. This was done by recording maximum and minimum heart rates within a period of 30 seconds. Since the site of the experiment had abundant background noise, silence could not be used as the control variable. Therefore, white noise was used as the control instead. The subjects listened to “Original White Noise” by White! Noise using Sony MDR7506 Dynamic Stereo Headphones. The subject was instructed to pedal at a rate between 8 and 10 mph and was supervised by an experimenter to ensure that the participant stayed within the proper pedaling speed range. As the participant pedaled, the researchers changed the resistance on the stationary bike between resistance levels 8 and 11 to make sure that the participant’s heart rate was within the preferred range. Subjects were monitored to ensure they had the heart rate ranges of 55-65% of his or her age-predicted heart range. The subject pedaled for two minutes,
As a matter of first importance, there are numerous reactions that happen in the cardiovascular system that produce improvements inside of the initial two minutes of exercise. One of these is heart rate. The heart rate rises by pumping more blood around the body. Typically, the cardiac muscles of the heart dividers will contract around 60-80 times each moment. Nonetheless, when exercise is begun, the body understands that more oxygen is required for the muscles to work at their maximum capacity. In this manner, the heart pumps more blood
The pulmonary ventilation increases when the body starts to do exercise, this happens because like most of the other responses the muscles need more oxygen, there is also an increase in the removal of carbon dioxide.
The circulatory system comprises of five main parts. These parts are; the Heart, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries and Veins. Each part has a specific role to play in the functioning of the circulatory system. The circulatory system works in a type of loop or closed system (www.about.com) (Craig Weber M.D).
During exercise your heart and breathing rates increase noticeably. The change is due to the increased needs of oxygen and other nutrients to the muscles in the body.
Each test subject started off seated in a chair at room temperature, in the same classroom, with a resting heart rate and normal breathing patterns. We took the subject’s resting blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic pressures) and heart rate with a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) made by MABIS Healthcare Inc, measuring the pressure of the brachial artery on the upper left forearm. The red indicating mark on the blood pressure cuff was aligned with the inside of the antecubital space. Once the first resting heart rate and blood pressure was recorded, the subject was asked to hold their breath for 30 seconds. After 30 seconds the
The effects of exercise on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate and electrical activity of the heart were assessed. The measurements of respiration rate, pulse rate and blood pressures were noted as described in Harris-Haller (2016). Data was first taken from subjects in a relaxed position and then followed by sets of reading after exercising based on one minute intervals. The data also noted sitting ECG traces from Harris-Haller (2016). The respiratory rate, pulse, blood pressure, P wave, QRS complex and T wave were defined for each subject. The class average was calculated for males and females and graphed to illustrate the results by gender for each cardiopulmonary factor.