Experimental Techniques For The Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanomaterials

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CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOMATERIALS. In order to explore novel physical properties and phenomena and realize potential applications of nanostructures and nanomaterials, the ability to fabricate and process nanomaterials and nanostructures is the first corner stone in nanotechnology. There exist a number of methods to synthesize the nanomaterials, which are categorized in two techniques “top down and bottom up”. Solid state route, ball milling comes in the category of top down approach, while wet chemical routes like sol-gel, co-precipitation, etc. come in the category of bottom up approach. Secondly, characterization of nanomaterials is necessary to analyze their various properties. Therefore, this chapter describes the various methods of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials. Characterization techniques include XRD, SEM, TEM, EDAX, UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, etc. 2.2. Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Fabrication of nanomaterials with strict control over size, shape, and crystalline structure has become very important for the applications of nanotechnology in numerous fields including catalysis, medicine, and electronics. Synthesis methods for nanoparticles are typically grouped into two categories: “top-down” and “bottom-up” approach. The first involves the division of a massive solid into smaller and smaller portions, successively reaching to nanometer size. This approach may involve milling or
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