Explain How Children and Young People’s Development Is Influenced by a Range of Personal and External Factors. 2.1 and 2.2

2858 WordsOct 18, 201112 Pages
Cypc 31.2 task2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal and external factors. 2.1 And 2.2 Personal Factors * During pregnancy-: If the mother smokes ,takes drugs, becomes ill or suffers from stress or anxiety this can result in premature birth and health problems for the baby such as -: low birth weight, undeveloped organs, problems with sight and hearing. These are all problems that could delay their development. Some children are born with conditions that could affect their development such as a blood disorder. * Health-: health problems can be genetic or caused by the environment the child grows up in. If the child lives in poor quality houses with damp this could trigger…show more content…
Operate Conditioning-: People learn and are influenced by the results of what they do. It’s also when people’s behaviour is affected by consequences, reinforcements and learning based on exploration of the environment. Skinner divided the consequences of actions into these three groups... 1. Positive reinforcement - using positive reinforcement such as stickers, attention and praise. 2. Negative reinforcements – this also makes children repeat behaviour but in different ways e.g.: If a child does well in an exam therefore they don’t have to do their chores. 3. Punishers – designed to prevent you from repeating behaviour e.g.: if a child burns themselves on a hot oven they wouldn’t touch it again. Skinner found that unpredictable reinforcements work better than continual. Influence on practice We use positive reinforcements in practice today. Giving children lots of praise to help them learn positive behaviour we also give out stickers to encourage repeated good behaviour. Pavlov and Watson are both associated with classical conditioning which is when you are taught to act a certain way by association and instruction. We do not use this in practice today but it helps us to understand phobias such as a child being scared of spiders because mummy is and always screams when she sees one. Cognitive development-constructivist theory Looking at
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