Explain How Operant Conditioning In Animal Training

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1. Describe what Operant conditioning is? Explain how Operant Conditioning can be applied in animal training? According to McLeod (2015), operant conditioning is a process that attempts to modify behavior to the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the behavior followed by rewarding consequences by adding a rewarding stimulus. Rewards take on many forms. One of the most ordinary rewards for animals is food. If an animal allow to get food successfully by a certain behaviors, the animal will repeat these behavior the next time when it is hungry. For example, positive reinforcement in training dolphins. Dolphins are train to showcase a performance to the tourist. They are taught to shake hand, jump, swim with the tourist and kiss the tourist who interact with them. During the training, dolphins are given a signal such as hand gestures or whistle before they started to do the moves. If they did a good job, they will received positive reinforcement by earning a reward such as foods. Meanwhile, negative reinforcement involves removing something in…show more content…
According to McLeod (2014), cognitive dissonance is the occurrence of a situation where an individual’s attitudes, beliefs or behaviors are clashed and it produces a discomfort feeling. To overcome and reduce the feeling of discomfort, changes towards attitudes, beliefs or behaviors are needed. In other words, when the cognition that we hold about the world and ourselves clash and causes cognitive dissonance, the cognitive dissonance theory would be worked as our own inner motivation that try to avoid and eliminate any of these disharmony (Festinger, 1957). According to McLeod (2014), when dissonance occur, it can be resolved and reduced using three ways, which is to change beliefs and attitudes, to change actions by acquiring new information and lastly is to change the perception of

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