Changes due to the aging process also need to be addressed. Calcium reabsorption increases especially in women after the menopause, this decreases bone density. Lean tissue decreases as fat increases with age; there is also a decline in the percentage of body water meaning that body temperature is more difficult to control. Thirst decline and decreased renal function means that older people can become dehydrated (Copeman 1999). The function of the bowel reduces, meaning that the elderly are more susceptible to indigestion and constipation. The risk of constipation is also increased with Parkinson’s disease (Parkinson’s UK 2011). The final consideration is the deterioration of the sensory system. Taste, smell, vison, pain and touch all decline meaning that food may not be as appealing (Copeman 1999).
More people are living much longer lives than in years past. People are very surprised to be living much longer lives than they thought they would. Health care has played a large part in patient longevity. There are many normal changes that come along with aging, however, because people are living longer these normal changes can become chronic problems. Common aging problems that can make the older adult a vulnerable population are reviewed in Gerontological Nursing (Tabloski, 2014) and can include nutritional needs, medication management, sleep changes, oral or mouth care, renal problems and musculoskeletal concerns. According to A Profile of Older Americans: 2013 (http://www.hhs.gov), there are a large amount
As you begin to get older your muscles within your digestive tract can start to become really weak and would possibly start giving you the risk of having a lot of constipation. Also as you get older your heart is beginning to get less efficient and would not be able to pump the blood around your body like what it used to have done. Also the other things that could happen to your organs as you begin to get older are
The elderly population is growing with 35 million people who are age 65 years or older and half are between the ages of 65 to 74 and the other half are over the age of 75. The population age 85 years or older are the fastest growing population (Dubow, 2017). In 1991 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that 8 out of 10 people over the age of 60 had one or more chronic diseases or impairments which included arthritis, hypertension, hearing impairment, heart disease, cataracts, deformity or orthopedic impairment, chronic sinusitis,
There are physiological changes that occur within all systems of the elderly. These changes provide challenges to providing quality care. The following is an example from each of the systems. The integumentary system has a decrease in subcutaneous fat, this increases the potential for decubitus ulcers. The musculoskeletal system has a decrease in bone density, which can contribute to falls. Diminished deep sleep develops due to changes in the neurologic system. This may result in weight fluctuations resulting from changes in appetite. The cardiovascular system causes a decrease in arterial compliance, resulting in increased risk of tachyarrhythmias. The Immune system has a decrease in immune response, resulting in the potential for delayed or incomplete healing. The respiratory system suffers from decreased
In 2011, the first of the Baby Boomers – the 78 million men and women born between 1946 and 1964 – will begin turning 65 at a rate of more than 8,000 per day. By year's end, the nation's senior population will have increased by almost 3 million, to nearly 49 million. By 2025, then, the total will reach 72 million – more than double the 35 million at the turn of the new century. (Home Instead Senior Care, 2010). Millions of Americans with chronic diseases and disabilities, like Alzheimer's, heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes, need careful monitoring but do not want enter a nursing home or skilled care facility. I can recall my grandfather would only agree to go to the doctor's office if he was certain he could return
Most seniors have what is called Type 2 diabetes. With this form of diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin to manage the body's sugar intake or it no longer uses the insulin it does make, properly.
One of the diseases is diabetes mellitus which is a major cause of renal failure. This disease can be defined as an increase of fasting blood glucose that is affected by a deficiency in insulin hormone. The normal range for glucose (fasting) in the blood is 2.8-6.0 mmol/L. It is classified into two groups, type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and type 2 (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Stein (2008, p.6) points out that kidney failure happens most often when patients have suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. According to United States Renal Data System (USRDS) report in 2007, approximately 44% of primary causes of renal failure is diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2005. Also, Stein (2008) indicates that 15% of dialysis patients are influenced by diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. Diabetes mellitus has negative affects throughout the kidneys where the increase of the range of blood sugar causes the damages to the cells in the kidneys. This leads to the presence of the glucose in the urine which is known as glycosuric.
Diabetes can affect the entire body. Two-thirds of adults with diabetes have high blood pressure, or hypertension. This condition is serious because it leads to an increased risk of stroke, heart disease, kidney and eye problems.
CAUSES OF ALBUMINURIA High blood pressure, Congestive heart failure Metabolic syndrome, or kidney damage from nephrotic syndrome ALBUMINURIA is seen in all forms of acute and chronic renal diseases GLUCOSE Glucose is found in the blood and is the main sugar that the body manufactures Glucosuria- The presence of glucose or blood sugar in urine is. It may indicate that the person has diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus - condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed int o the cells of the body. SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS frequent urination increased thirst increased hunger The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injecti ons of insulin.
According to National Kidney Foundation (2010), the majority of people with diabetes tend to develop kidney disease. This is probably the result of poor or improper dietary and life-style practices, although genetics seem to be a factor. This makes it the single leading cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure/Hypertension is another pre-disposing factor of kidney failure. This disease is also aggravated by improper dietary and life-style practices. High blood pressure/Hypertension speeds up the loss of kidney function and eventually leads to kidney failure. It also appears to have genetic and familial factors (National Kidney Foundation, 2010).
The prognosis of kidney failure is different from one person to another because the disease is so unpredictable, many times if caught early the disease can be reversed. Factors that play a role are the duration of the disease, complications, and recovery time. It is important to not let the disease go untreated.