Explain The Principles Of Classical Conditioning, And Phobias

1343 Words6 Pages
This essay will attempt to mention and explain the principles of classical conditioning; define classical conditioning and how it comes about. Also this essay will define Phobias and how these Phobias are developed including examples. We will look at how systematic desensitisation is used and by the end of this essay one will have a better understanding and knowledge about the definition and principles of classical conditioning, Phobias and systematic desensitisation.
“Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns a relationship between the stimuli” (Gleitman, Gross, Reisberg 2011). Ian Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who is merely known for his work which is classical
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“Acquisition is gaining new information and placing it in the memory” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example by using the meat the dog will produce saliva whenever it sees light. If you ring the bell and follow it by light, without introducing food the bell itself will trigger the dog to produce saliva. This is called second-order conditioning. Second-order conditioning can produce effects that can lead to fears called phobias (Gewirtz & Davis, 2000). “Extinction is the undoing of a previously learned response so that the response is no longer produced” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example, when a light is presented continuously followed by a blow of wind this will create a continuous response. Therefore everytime the light is presented on its own the dog will automatically shiver (Gleitman et al, 2011). “Discrimination is an aspect of learning in which the organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that have been associated with a US and stimuli that have not” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example, if a person comes up to you with an angry face on them and you feel fear in response to their angry face what you need to do is discriminate. In other words remove the fear by ignoring the person. The last principle of classical conditioning is Contingency. “Contingency is managing a form of behaviour therapy in which certain behaviours are reliably followed by…show more content…
Example’s that were used throughout the essay were the fear of flying, fear of insects and the fear of heights. This essay attempted to mention and explain the principles of classical conditioning which are Acquisition, Extinction, Generalization, discrimination and contingency. Also this essay explained what classical conditioning is and how it comes about. Finally, one will have a better understanding of how systematic desensitisation is used.

References:
PAVLOV, I. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
GEWIRTZ, J., & DAVIS, M. (2000). Using Pavlovian higher-order conditioning paradigms to investigate the neural substrates of emotional learning and memory. Learning & memory, 7, 257-266
KESSLER, R. C., BERGLUND, P., DEMLER, O., JIN, R., MERIKANGAS, K. R., & WALTERS, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of general psychiatry, 62, 593-602.
BOURDON, K. H., BOYD, J. H., RAE, D. S., BURNS, B. J., THOMPSON, J. W., & LOCKE, B. Z. (1998) Gender differences in phobias: Results of the ECA community survey. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2, 227-241.
WATSON, J. B., & RAYNER, R. (1920) Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental psychology, 3, 1-14.
GLEITMAN, H., GROSS, J., & REISBERG, D.
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