This essay will examine the functions of the liver and discuss the role of bile acids in OC. The pathophysiology of OC will be explored. The role of the midwife within a multidisciplinary team, alongside the physical care that is offered to women
When a cystic duct is continuously obstructed inflammation occurs. Bile stasis triggers release of inflammatory enzymes and can be caused by fasting, obstruction, postsurgical/procedural irritation or ileus (total parenteral nutrition [TPN]), which can lead to bile inspissation that is directly toxic to the gallbladder epithelium. The damaged mucosa secretes more fluid into the gallbladder lumen than it absorbs. The resulting distention further releases inflammatory mediators (eg, prostaglandins), worsening mucosal damage and causing ischemia, all of which prolong inflammation and can cause a bacterial infection to occur later. The malicious circle of fluid secretion and inflammation leads to necrosis and perforation if it goes unchecked. If acute inflammation resolves then continues to recur, the gallbladder becomes fibrotic and contracted and does not concentrate bile or empty normally which is a feature of chronic cholecystitis. (Huffman, J. et al.,
Newborn jaundice Newborn jaundice is a condition marked by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. The increased bilirubin causes the infant's skin and whites of the eyes (sclera) to look yellow.
Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a serious disease of the liver where scar tissue replaces normal healthy tissue, and affects the function and structure of the liver. Liver, which is the largest organ in the body, has a vital roles which are important to keep the body functioning well. Liver makes proteins and
Generally, bilirubin enters the liver and is transported to the liver where it is then secreted by liver cells into bile.
Types of Hepatitis Lab test results show a positive anti-HCV and confirm that Chad has Hepatitis C. The nurse explains to Chad that Hepatitis is liver disease with inflammation of the cells of the liver. Chad states "I can't have Hepatitis. I had all three of the vaccinations before I started
BILE Bile is a brownish bitter alkaline fluid produced by the liver and made by the hepatocytes from water, bile salts, bile pigments cholesterol and phospholipids and stored in the gall bladder. Bile is directly connected with digestion. It is released sporadically into the small intestine (duodenum) which is part of the gut in order to help digestion. Bile contains chemicals that break down/emulsify fats by dispersing fat globules into small droplets, therefore increasing the surface area, in turn speeding up the reaction. When fats get to the small intestine they
Genetic Factors Bilirubin (which causes the yellow color) from these broken down cells builds up in the system causing jaundice.
Gallstones are solid formations that are created from the components found in the bile juice. Gall juice is a yellowish-green liquid that contains bile acids, cholesterol, bilirubin, metals and other metabolites. Accordingly, we distinguish cholesterol (stones with cholesterol), bilirubin (stones with bilirubin) and mixed.
What is Gallstones in Cats? The cat's gallbladder is a small, balloon-shaped organ that is located in the lobes of the liver. Its primary function is releasing bile into the digestive tract to aid in the digestion of food. Cholelithiasis is a condition that causes small stones, or choleliths, to form in the gallbladder. These stones are typically made of calcium carbonate mixed with other secreted substance and minerals.
Gallstone disease represents an important issue in the healthcare system and one of the most common and costly of all digestive diseases if we consider the number of cholecystectomies, which are performed annually all over the world, and the hospital admission rate for complicated gallstone disease (Guarino et.al., 2013). Gallstone disease is a disorder where genetics and the environment plays a major factor. Some of the risk factors that contribute to the disease are age, gender, race, parity, and dietary factors (Guarino et. al., 2013). Gallstones are hard deposits that can be extremely small or as large as tangerine, and they tend to roam around in your gallbladder. Gallstones develop where there is too much cholesterol in the bile. When
Gallstones may sometimes cause certain symptoms. These symptoms include Chronic Indigestion, which have symptoms such as nausea, heartburn and bloating.
Gallstones Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Inflammation usually forms when a gallstone blocks the cystic duct that transports bile. Cholecystitis is the most common problem resulting from gallbladder stones (90% of the cases). Cholecystitis affects women more often than men and is more likely to occur after age 40.
1. The stomach is an expandable muscular sac that is capable of holding 2-4 liters of food and liquids and breaks them down with the use of pepsinogen, an inactive form pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme. If the stomach was damaged or dysfunctional, then it would be harder to gradually release
This substance is produced when a human digests lipids or fats. According to Sareen Gropper and Jack Smith’s “Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism” bile is produced through the process of chemically altering cholesterol, which is a type of fat found in a human’s blood. This process takes place in the liver and bile acids are produced. These bile acids are then conjugated or united with taurine and glycine to produce biosurfactants known as bile salts. The existence of bile salts inside of bile gives the substance the capacity to amalgamate lipids and fats with their aqueous (watery) environment inside of the gallbladder. According to Sareen Gropper and Jack Smith’s “Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism” bile is released from its origin (gallbladder) into the small intestine. Through the process of emulsification the bile substance in the small intestine disintegrates fats into much tinier particles which can be digested and absorbed at a much more efficient and quicker rate. This evidently shows that without bile and in turn bile salts the digestion of fats will not be