Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution? ( in Pahlavi dynasty)

5849 Words Sep 21st, 2004 24 Pages
Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution?

M.Abdollahi

May 1999

Introduction

The circumstances of the events between the years 1960 and 1963 are considered as the background and basis for the proclamation of the White Revolution. The general atmosphere of political uncertainty and poor economic prospects reduced domestic saving and investment. Thus the inflationary pressure continued and the cost of living rose day by day. In addition the Iranian economic situation was conditioned by the political conflict.

In 1960, one of the most important events was the election of the twentieth Majles. The two parties that the Shah created, the Melliun (Nationalist Party) and the Mardom (People Party) were rivals. Under U.S. pressure,
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It seems that, by the end of 1962, the Shah had secured his position, due to the support of the United States. Hence, he seemed stronger than ever. However, Katuzian mentions that "The Shah was aware that his espousal of the land-reform programme still involved a serious risk to his position." The economy was still in poor shape, and political dissatisfaction and opposition were still strong. Also in spite of the feebleness of the National Front's leadership, and 'Ali Amini who had achieved some popularity after his resignation, had not yet given up the fight.

On 26th January 1963, The Shah planned the greatest project of his life, the introduction of the "White Revolution". He called it the "White Revolution", because, according to him, unlike all other revolutions, which are accompanied by bloodshed, this one would be peaceful. It seems that at that time he became convinced, with some influence from U.S advisers, of the need for certain reforms. It is possible that the reform was a logical part of a general strategy of capitalist development and of greater governmental control in the countryside.

This essay will explain the main causes for the failure of the White Revolution in Iran. First, I shall explain the main factors of the programme of the reform and the nature of the White Revolution and major factors which were against it. Then, the opposition and the circumstance of their activity
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