Explain the distinction Jean Grimshaw makes between misogyny and philosophically significant ‘maleness’ of philosophical theories.
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1. Explain the distinction Jean Grimshaw makes between misogyny and philosophically significant ‘maleness’ of philosophical theories.
Jean Grimshaw argues the idea that the discipline of Philosophy is gendered in some way by making a distinction between misogyny and philosophically significant ‘maleness ‘of philosophical theories. The ‘maleness’ of philosophy is characterised by the fact that most of the practitioners of philosophy have been and are still male. Grimshaw argues that this fact alone does not establish the ‘maleness’ of philosophy but gives a sense of understanding. The second point Grimshaw argues is the way in which male philosophers devalue women and how women are believed to be inferior or held in contempt. Grimshaw…show more content… In this case, Singer is discussing nonhuman equality. Singer argues that if a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. He characterises this as ‘sentience’ the ability having the capacity to suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness. Human speciesists do not accept that pain is as bad when it is felt by animals as it is felt by humans, which is the argument for extending the principle of equality to nonhumans. When making a distinction between animals and humans Singer states that there are many areas in which the superior mental powers of normal adult humans make a difference: anticipation, more detailed memory, greater knowledge of what is happening and so on. These differences between humans and animals lead to the conclusion that normal adult human beings have mental capacities which will, in certain circumstances lead them to suffer more than animals would in the same circumstances. However, Singer proposes that if we use this argument to justify experiments on nonhuman animals then we have to ask ourselves whether we are also prepared to allow experiments on human infants and retarded adults as they too would have no idea of what was going to happen to them. In conclusion, Singer argues that the difference between humans and animals should not be considered when defining the moral standards of animal equality, as the