Scenario: John is a 4 year-old boy who was admitted for chemotherapy following diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He had a white blood cell count of 250,000. Clinical presentation included loss of appetite, easily bruised, gum bleeding, and fatigue. Physical examination revealed marked splenomegaly, pale skin color, temperature of 102°F, and upper abdomen tenderness along with nonspecific arthralgia.
Cyclic Neutropenia is a rare hematological disorder characterized by constant occurrences of irregularly low levels of neutrophils in the body. Cyclic Neutropenia is caused by a change in the neutrophils. That causes the body to become easily susceptible to bacteria. The Neutrophils in the body aggressively fight off bacteria that may enter the body. When the level of neutrophils drop it causes the neutropenia to occur which is every twenty-one days and can last for three to six days which at that point makes it cyclic because it is repeating in a cycle. During the periods of neutropenia, the count of the monocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes increase dramatically
What is granulocytopenia (pronounced grăn’-yǝ-lō-sī’-tə-pē’-nē-ə)? Is a hematological disorder. It is defined as a condition where there is an abnormally low number of white blood cells, referred to as granulocytes. Under a microscope, these white blood cells, or granulocytes, appear to be covered with granules.
Our body produces white blood cells, known as leukocytes, as a way to fight against bacterial infections and viruses as well as other foreign invaders. There are currently many types of white blood cells that perform various activities in the fight against pain throughout the body.
This anemia results in fatigue and a number of the following problems;pain episodes, strokes, susceptibility to bacterial infections, particularly in children, leg ulcers, bone damage, yellow eyes or jaundice, early gallstones, lung blockage, increased infections, kidney damage and loss of body water in urine, painful erections in men, blood blockage in the spleen or liver, eye damage, low red blood cell counts (anemia), and delayed growth.
Neutrophils are particular kind of white blood cell that aids in preventing and or fighting infections. Neutropenia defines the body has a low level of neutrophils. Anticancer treatment, especially chemo, frequently incurs neutropenia.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, is the disease that affects children the most and because of the abnormal cells that are immature white blood cells which cannot help the body fight infections cause children with the disease to often get infections and have fevers (National Cancer Institute, 2002, p. 1). The symptoms that the patient with ALL may have depend on the number of abnormal cells of the patient where exactly the cells collect. Children patients with ALL have low amounts of healthy red blood cells and platelets, which cause less oxygen to be carried through the body because of the lack of red blood cells. Patients at times may look pale, feel weak, and tired causing bleeding and bruising very easily because of their lack of enough platelets. This condition is called anemia. Anemia is very much common in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Fever, fatigue, bone or joint pain, tiny red spots under the skin called petechiae are a couple of symptoms that the disease ALL has. Headaches with, or without vomiting also may occur if patient happens to have abnormal cells collecting in the brain or spinal cord (National Cancer Institute, 2002 para. 2).
Virtually all chemotherapeutic regimens can cause depression of the immune system, often by paralyzing the bone marrow and leading to a decrease of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Anemia and thrombocytopenia, when they occur, are improved with blood transfusion. Neutropenia (a decrease of
Risk for infection related to immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy, invasive lines, inadequate primary defenses and chronic disease. Knowledge deficit related to nutrition, and environment secondary to chronic disease. Altered nutrition related to weight loss secondary to disease process and
Idiopathic neutropenia is a blood disorder characterized by an extremely low level of neutrophils throughout the body with an unknown cause or source. Until 1987 no treatments for this disease were available, only the symptoms were treated and the patient was made more comfortable. After this year however, a breakthrough in the treatment and stabilization of these patients was made: Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF), also known as neupogen or filgrastim. I, myself, was diagnosed with chronic idiopathic neutropenia at the age of nine and told that most people with my specific type of neutropenia do not live past the age of twenty. I truly believe that it was the
Lastly, this excruciating plague had some painful symptoms alike the inability to keep food down, excruciating fever, and last but definitely not the least, the unbearable pain. With these comes a list of other symptoms. Chills, fever, general ill feeling, headache, muscle pain, ad seizures. Other symptoms include, cough, difficulty breathing, fever, frothy, bloody spectrum, pain in chest when you breathe deeply, blood clotting, diarrhea, vomiting. In addition, there are many