Explanation and Details on Acute Renal Failure

1638 WordsFeb 2, 20187 Pages
1. Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Both of our kidneys functions to filter and excrete waste products and toxins by regulating fluids, electrolytes, and acid based balance. If the Renal blood flow is altered then the glomerular filtration rate will be altered as well. A decrease in systemic pressure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to constrict the renal artery and decreases filtration and secretion in the kidney. In addition, a tubular obstruction can lead to the reduction of Glomerular filtration rate. An elevated intracellular calcium level due to tubular damage may alter cellular level that increases tubuloglomerular feedback and diminishes GFR. This may be prerenal, intrarenal, or postrenal. The prerenal will result from any condition outside of the kidney that disables the blood to flow to the renal vasculature causing a decrease in perfusion in the glomerulus leading to oliguria. However, both of the kidneys can still return to its full normal function on this stage. Second of the three is intrarenal, where anything can cause a direct damage to both of the kidneys such as infections, toxins, reduce blood supply, hypertension, diabetes, and even glomerulonephritis. The most common intrarenal condition is Acute Tubular Necrosis, where the epithelial layer of the nephrons are damaged causing a change in the concentration of urine, waste filtration, and an imbalance in electrolytes and acid
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